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The comparative study of bloodletting therapy between traditional Chinese medicine and Tibetan medicine in view of history development, theoretic basis, bloodletting location, bloodletting tool, operation method, bloodletting amount, indications, contraindications and the others are conducted in this paper. It is pointed out that the bloodletting therapy could be better carried forward and developed through the interaction and integration of bloodletting therapy between traditional Chinese medicine and Tibetan medicine in term of the theoretic, practical and development patterns under the guidance of these two different medical theoretical systems.

Rubus amabilis, Rubus niveus Thunb., and Rubus sachalinensis are three Rubus species that are alternatively found in Manubzhithang, a Tibetan medicine, in different areas of China. The current study analyzed HPLC/UV chromatograms and it compared compounds of these three Rubus species in contrast to reference substances such as 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, procyanidin B4, and isovitexin-7-O-glucoside. The three Rubus species produced similar peaks in chromatograms. The antioxidant activity of the three Rubus species was determined using an assay for DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Results indicated that the three Rubus species extracts had almost the same level of free radical scavenging activity. Thus, findings indicated the rationality of substituting these species for one another as an ingredient in Manubzhithang.

A simple, efficient and accurate liquid chromatographic method was established to determine five flavonoid aglycones, 7-hydroxy flavonone, pinocembrin, 2′,4′-dihydroxy chalcone, 2′-hydroxy-4′-methoxy chalcone and pinostrobin in the whole plant powder of <i>Oxytropis falcata</i> Bunge. These five compounds were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C<sub>8</sub> column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm). Mobile phases were composed of water containing 0.1% <i>v/v</i> formic acid and acetonitrile using gradient elution. The established method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and quantitation, repeatability and stability.

Fecal Tibetan medicines have a long history of application in China, with a good clinical efficacy. In order to promote the development and modernization of these medicines, we consulted ancient and modern Tibetan medicine literatures to collect and summarize the names, original species, natures, flavor, functions and processing methods of fecal Tibetan medicines. A total of 35 fecal Tibetan medicines were collected, such as Jiufen, Heibingpian, Langfen, Mafen, Goufen, Gezifen. The most commonly used medicines were Jiufen and Heibingpian. Both were mainly used for the treatment of indigestion, food abdominal distension, gastric ulcer, and other gastrointestinal diseases. At present, there are only a few studies on the active ingredients, pharmacodynamics and mechanism of action of these medicines. Therefore, further study shall be conducted. The regulation of gut microbiota may be a new way to evaluate the effectiveness of fecal Tibetan medicines and their mechanism of action.

Anticancer targets of cryptotanshinone were evaluated and rapidly forecasted with PharmMapper, a reverse pharmacophore-based screening platform, as well as drug target databases, including PDTD, DrugBank and TTD. The pathway analyses for the collection of anticancer targets screened were carried out based on the KEGG pathway database, followed by the forecast of potential pharmacological activities and pathways of the effects of cryptotanshinone, and verification of some of the targets screened using whole cell tests. The results showed that a total of eight targets with anticancer potential were screened, including MAP2K1, RARα, RXRα, PDK1, CHK1, AR, Ang-1 R, and Kif11. These targets are mainly related to four aspects of the cancer growth: the cell cycle, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and androgen receptor. The cell tests showed that cryptotanshinone can inhibit the viability of human hepatoma cells SMMC-7721, which is related to the reduction of expression of MAP2K1 mRNA. This method provides a strong clue for the study of the anticancer effects and mechanisms of action of cryptotanshinone in the future.

2′,4′-Dihydroxychalcone (TFC), one of the main components in Herba Oxytropis, belongs to the flavonoid group, which is known to have anti-tumor activity in vitro. In this study, the authors examined the effects of TFC on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells. The MTT assay results showed that TFC was able to induce cytotoxicity in MGC-803 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining analysis indicated that the cytotoxicity induced by TFC was mediated by apoptosis, and flow cytometry analysis indicated an increase in apoptotic cells after treatment with TFC. Furthermore, typical apoptotic morphology such as condensed chromatin, irregular nuclei, vacuoles, and dispersed granular material in the nuclear compartment were also observed using a transmission electron microscope. These results suggested that TFC can inhibit the growth of MGC-803 cells and induce apoptosis. However, further studies are necessary to investigate the possible mechanism.

This study sought to establish a more reliable method of identifying the "monarch" or principal drug Radix inulae and its active component alantolactone (AL) in the Tibetan medicine Manuxitang. Radix inulae and AL in Manuxitang were effectively identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). AL was quantitatively determined using gas chromatography in the range of 0.1-1.0 mug/mL (r = 0.9998). The precision was 1.20% (n = 6) with an average RSD of 1.74%. Recovery was in the range of 93.5-98.5% with RSD value of 1.85%. The methods established were simple, accurate, and specific and could be used for quality control of Manuxitang.

As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.