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Fatty acids in Herpetospermum seed oil from supercritical CO2 extraction were analyzed by HPLC fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with pre-column derivatization and GC-MS. After derivatizing 39 kinds of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids used 1-[ 2- ( p-toluenesulfonate ) ethyl]-2-phenylimidazole [ 4,5-f] 9,10-phenanthrene ( TSPP ) as pre-column derivatization reagent. All the fatty acid derivatives were separated with a good baseline resolution in conjunction with a gradient elution. The external standard method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of 39 fatty acids was developed and applied for the determination of the free fatty acid contents in Herpetospermum seed oil samples obtained from supercritical CO2 extraction coupled with orthogonal tests, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted reflux extraction. The mass percent of oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids and all fatty acids in 9 orthogonal test samples were contrasted. The results indicated that the mass percent of oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid in Herpetospermum seed oil are up to 34.65% ( 147. 14 mg/g), 22.85% (97.03 mg/g), 20. 86% ( 88. 56 rag/g), respectively, and ratio of unsaturated fatty acids and all fatty acids is 79%. Furthermore, by GC-MS method, the acid catalysis and alkaline catalysis of the methyl esterifying reaction were discussed for the analysis fatty acids in Herpetospermum seed oil, and the optimum GC-MS conditions were obtained. Simultaneously, the characteristics of HPLC and GC-MS methods were discussed about analyzing fatty acids.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the protective effect of Herpetospermum pedunculosum (H. pedunculosum) seed oil against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage.METHODS: This experimental study was conducted at the Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Yantai University, China from November 2012 to May 2013. The H. pedunculosum seed oil was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide. The antioxidant activities of H. pedunculosum seed oil were assayed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, lipid peroxidation assay, and antihemolytic assay. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (10 rats/group) including control, CCl4, CCl4+bifendate, and CCl4+H. pedunculosum seed oil (3 different doses) groups. RESULTS: The CCl4-induced liver lesions include hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, calcification, and fibrosis. Moreover, CCl4 damage results in an obvious increase of serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, malondialdehyde, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity. In addition, CCl4 also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). By contrast, H. pedunculosum seed oil administration significantly ameliorated the CCl4-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers, and increased the activities of SOD. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that H. pedunculosum seed oil can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect.

Two novel organic amide alkaloids, 4-[(<i>E</i>)-<i>p</i>-coumaroylamino]butan-1-ol (<b>1</b>) and 4-[(<i>Z</i>)-<i>p</i>-coumaroylamino]butan-1-ol (<b>2</b>), together with a rare pyridoindole alkaloid, hippophamide (<b>3</b>), were isolated from the seed residue of <i>Hippophae rhamnoides</i> Linn. subsp. <i>sinensis</i> Rousi. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. The results show that compounds <b>1</b> and <b>2</b> are (<i>E</i>/<i>Z</i>)<i>-</i>isomers, compound <b>3</b>, a pyridoindole alkaloid concerted with <i>γ</i>-lactam ring.

A new triterpenoid, namely myricarin C (compound 1), together with three known compounds myricarin A (compound 2) and myricarin B (compound 3), 3α-hydroxy-D-friedoolean-14-en-28-oic acid (compound 4), was isolated from the overground part of Myricaria squamosa. Compound 2 and compound 3 existed in the solution by the form of cis-trans isomers. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. The antioxidant properties of all compounds were calculated based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that myricarin A and myricarin C had general antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 40.90 μg/ml, 42.22 μg/ml, respectively, compared to the control, rutin (5.17 μg/ml). The EC50 values of myricarin B was 195.81 μg/ml. Compound 4 had no antioxidant activities.