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Anxiety, depression and eating disorders show peak emergence during adolescence and share common risk factors. School-based prevention programs provide a unique opportunity to access a broad spectrum of the population during a key developmental window, but to date, no program targets all three conditions concurrently. Mindfulness has shown promising early results across each of these psychopathologies in a small number of controlled trials in schools, and therefore this study investigated its use in a randomised controlled design targeting anxiety, depression and eating disorder risk factors together for the first time. Students (M age 13.63; SD = .43) from a broad band of socioeconomic demographics received the eight lesson, once weekly.b ("Dot be") mindfulness in schools curriculum (N = 132) or normal lessons (N = 176). Anxiety, depression, weight/shape concerns and wellbeing were the primary outcome factors. Although acceptability measures were high, no significant improvements were found on any outcome at post-intervention or 3-month follow-up. Adjusted mean differences between groups at post-intervention were .03 (95% CI: -.06 to -.11) for depression, .01 (-.07 to -.09) for anxiety, .02 (-.05 to -.08) for weight/shape concerns, and .06 (-.08 to -.21) for wellbeing. Anxiety was higher in the mindfulness than the control group at follow-up for males, and those of both genders with low baseline levels of weight/shape concerns or depression. Factors that may be important to address for effective dissemination of mindfulness-based interventions in schools are discussed. Further research is required to identify active ingredients and optimal dose in mindfulness-based interventions in school settings.

Objective: To investigate engagement in metacognitive acceptance and subsequent efficacy with respect to decreasing 2 risk factors for disordered eating, body dissatisfaction (BD), and negative affect (NA). Method: In a pilot experiment, 20 female undergraduates (Mage = 24.35, SD = 9.79) underwent a BD induction procedure, received acceptance training using brief written instructions, and were then assessed on engagement in the technique. In a second experiment in which acceptance training was enhanced through the use of video format and a guided experiential exercise, 80 female undergraduates (mean age = 23.59, SD = 8.98) were randomized to an acceptance or control group following the same BD induction. Outcome measures were taken at baseline, postinduction, and posttreatment and consisted of separate visual analogue scales for weight and appearance satisfaction and the NA subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Baseline assessments included the Eating Disorder Inventory–BD, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Results: Enhanced training significantly increased engagement in acceptance. Nonengagement was associated with NA, emotion regulation difficulties, and avoidant coping. Acceptance training significantly increased weight and appearance satisfaction and reduced NA relative to control, with no significant differences between those who did and did not engage. Intervention effects were moderated by mindfulness, emotion regulation difficulty, and avoidant coping. Conclusions: Findings provide clarification regarding engagement and lend further support for the utility of acceptance, with particular benefit identified for those “at risk” for emotion regulation difficulty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

The authors examined the relative effectiveness of 3 different approaches to the experience of body dissatisfaction compared to a control and ruminative attention control condition, with respect to increasing weight and appearance satisfaction. One hundred female undergraduates (mean age = 24.38, SD = 9.39) underwent a body dissatisfaction induction procedure, which significantly decreased levels of weight and appearance satisfaction. Participants were then randomized, 20 to each of 5 groups: control, ruminative attention control, acceptance, distraction, and cognitive dissonance. With the exception of the control group, participants were briefly trained in their assigned technique and were asked to practice this over the next 5 min while repeated measures of weight and appearance satisfaction were recorded. Acceptance, cognitive dissonance, and distraction were superior to both control conditions in increasing weight satisfaction and were superior to a control condition in improving appearance satisfaction. Only acceptance was superior in improving appearance satisfaction compared to a ruminative attention control. The evidence suggests that acceptance is a promising approach to investigate further with respect to its efficacy for reducing body dissatisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)