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Amino acids are indispensable components of living organisms. The high amino acid content in Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. fruit distinguishes it from other berry plants and is of great significance to its nutritional value. Herein, using 10-ethyl-acridine-3-sulfonyl chloride as a fluorescent pre-column labeling reagent, a method for the efficient and rapid determination of amino acid content in N. tangutorum by pre-column fluorescence derivatization and on-line mass spectrometry was established and further validated. The limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) were between 0.13 and 1.13 nmol/L, with a linear coefficient greater than 0.997 and a relative standard deviation between 1.37% and 2.64%. In addition, the method required a short analysis time, separating 19 amino acids within 20 min. Subsequently, the method was used to analyze the amino acid content of Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. from tissues retrieved from seven regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. was shown to contain a large amount of amino acids, with the total content and main amino acid varying between the different tissues. This research supports the nutritional evaluation, quality control, and development and utilization of Nitraria tangutorum Bobr.

NSM-<i>g</i>-P(MMA-<i>co</i>-BA) resin with super oil-absorbent capability was prepared by grafting co-polymerization using Nitraria seeds meal as filler, methyl-meth-acrylate (MMA) and butyl-acrylate (BA) as monomers, <i>N,N′</i>-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker and peroxide-benzoyl (BPO) as initiator. The structure of obtained products was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The oil absorbency, reusability, oil-retention capacity, thermodynamics, and the removal of oil from the surface of 0.9 wt% NaCl solutions were examined further. The results showed that NSM-<i>g</i>-P(MMA-<i>co</i>-BA) can absorb lubrication up to 29.6 times of its weight, 24.3 times for colza oil, 22.7 times for diesel, and 21 times for gasoline. The exhausted NSM-<i>g</i>-P(MMA-<i>co</i>-BA) can be recollected and recovered through extraction or drying approach. More importantly, the oil sorption capacity of recovered NSM-<i>g</i>-P(MMA-<i>co</i>-BA) only has a slight decline after six sorption cycles. The thermodynamic studies indicated that adsorption procedure with complex physical and chemical sorption is spontaneous and exothermic. In general, the present composite resins have exhibited potential applications in cleanup of oil spills because of their good hydrophobicity, lipophilicity, and excellent network structure. Also, the findings of this study might provide a convenient and economic method for fast and selective removal of oil from surface of wastewater. POLYM. COMPOS., 39:1051-1063, 2018. © 2016 Society of Plastics Engineers

<b>Caragana korshinskii</b> Kom. (CK), one of afforestation tree species, is widely planted in northwest region of China. To compare the constituents as references for further utilization of CK, <b>C. microphyll</b> Lam. (CM) and <b>C. jubata</b> L. (CJ), been used as traditional Chinese medicine, were taken into consideration. To obtain more information on CK for further utilization, a sensitive and stable pre-column derivatization method for the analysis of fatty acids (FAs) was established using a novel labeling reagent 2-(5H-benzo[a]-carbazol-11(6H)-yl)ethyl hydrazine-carboxylate (BCEHC) by HPLC with fluorescence detector. The derivatives exhibit predominant fluorescence property at excitation and emission wavelengths of 330 nm and 380 nm, respectively. 16 derivatives of FAs including 13 saturated FAs and 3 unsaturated FAs are separated on a reversed-phase column with gradient elution within 30 min. The validation of method indicated that all FAs were given excellent linear responses with good linear coefficient of correlation being equal to or greater than 0.9985. The limits of detection (LODs) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 varied from 63.12 to 116.21 ng L−1. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the contents of free FAs (FFAs) in flowers, leaves and bark of CK and the samples were extracted by a green and simple method of gas purge microsyringe extraction. The results show that the contents of linoleic acid and linolenic acid are high in flowers and leaves while the bark is rich in linoleic acid. The total content of FFAs in all parts of CK is higher than that of CM. The distribution of FFAs in plants is obviously different even in the congeneric among different species.

A method of using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and semi-preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography (semi-preparative RPLC) to preparatively separate flavone glucosides and lignan from the crude extracts of <i>Caragana korshinskii</i> has been established for the first time in this study. Five flavone glucosides, including 9 mg of kaempferol 3-O-{β-<i>d</i>-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-<i>l</i>-rhamonopyranosyl(1 → 6)]-β-<i>d</i>-galactopyranoside}, 21 mg of kaempferol 3-O-α-<i>l</i>-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-<i>d</i>-galactopyranoside-7-O-α-<i>l</i>-rhamnopyranoside, 34 mg of kaempferol 3-O-β-<i>d</i>-galactopyranoside-7-O-α-<i>l</i>-rhamnopyranoside, 27 mg of kaempferol 3-O-β-<i>d</i>-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-<i>l</i>-rhamnopyranoside, and 14 mg of calycosin 7-O-β-<i>d</i>-glucopyranoside, and one lignan, 16 mg of alangilignoside B, were successfully isolated from 1.8 g of the crude sample through the combination of HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-<i>n</i>-butanol-0.5 % formic acid (4:1:5, <i>v/v/v</i>) and semi-preparative RPLC with a mobile phase of methanol-water (20:80, <i>v/v</i>). The purities of the six compounds are all over 95 % as determined by HPLC and the structures are confirmed by the analysis of UV, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR and compared with published data.

A method of using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) for preparative isolation and purification of oligostilbenes from the ethanol extracts of seed kernel of Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz was established in this study. Four oligostilbenes were successfully separated and purified by HSCCC with two sets of two-phase solvent system, n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:6:4.2:5.5, v/v/v/v) in the head-to-tail elution mode for the first separation to mainly isolate vitisin A (58 mg), ɛ-viniferin (76 mg) and peak II (43 mg) from 300 mg of the crude ethanol extracts, and then light petroleum-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:3:6, v/v/v/v) in the tail-to-head elution mode for the second separation to isolate vitisin B (52 mg) and vitisin C (11 mg) from 100mg of peak II. The purities of the isolated four oligostilbenes were all over 95.0% as determined by HPLC. Vitisin A, vitisin B and vitisin C, resveratrol tetramers, were isolated from Iris lactea for the first time. The preparation of crude sample was simple and the HSCCC method for the isolation and purification of four oligostilbenes was rapid, efficient and economical.

• Extracts from <b>Lycium ruthenicum</b> Murr. fruit were obtained by UAE. • Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of obtained extracts were simultaneously optimized by RSM. • Optimum parameters: time 30 min, power 100 W, solvent-sample ratio 40 mL/g, ethanol 33%. • The extracts contained phenolic acids, identified and quantified by HPLC.<br><b>Lycium ruthenicum</b> Murr. (LR) is a functional food that plays an important role in anti-oxidation due to its high level of phenolic compounds. This study aims to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of obtained extracts from LR using response surface methodology (RSM). A four-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to discuss the following extracting parameters: extraction time (<b>X</b> 1), ultrasonic power (<b>X</b> 2), solvent to sample ratio (<b>X</b> 3) and solvent concentration (<b>X</b> 4). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results revealed that the solvent to sample ratio had a significant influence on all responses, while the extraction time had no statistically significant effect on phenolic compounds. The optimum values of the combination of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were obtained for <b>X</b> 1 = 30 min, <b>X</b> 2 = 100 W, <b>X</b> 3 = 40 mL/g, and <b>X</b> 4 = 33% (v/v). Five phenolic acids, including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, <b>p</b>-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, were analyzed by HPLC. Our results indicated that optimization extraction is vital for the quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in LR, which may be contributed to large-scale industrial applications and future pharmacological activities research.

Glucose carbon microspheres have been widely used for wastewater treatment as adsorbent owing to their strong adsorption capacity, but for large-scale applications, the glucose carbon microspheres are inconvenient to be recycled from aqueous suspension due to their good suspendability. Moreover, the primitive nature of small particle size, large specific surface area and high surface energy of glucose carbon microspheres make them prone to aggregate and thus, disperse no-effectively for the other extended application. To solve this dilemma, polyester (PET) fibers decorated with glucose carbon microspheres (GC@PFs) were herein fabricated by one-step hydrothermal carbonization with acrylic acid as a coupling agent. The products were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Boehm titration, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TG), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and zeta potential respectively. The experimental results showed that a large amount of glucose carbon microspheres were evenly dispersed on the surface of carboxyl activated polyester fibers with uniform particle diameter, and the composite fibers showed desirable adsorption ability of cationic dyes for its more negative zeta potential. The dye adsorption isotherm follows Langmuir model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model better. Remarkably, the adsorbent has an excellent recyclability for maintaining a high removal rate (>85%) to dye even after 10 cycles.<br>• Glucose carbon microspheres were evenly distributed on the PET fibers surface that solved the problem of easy aggregation. • The polyester fibers were firstly decorated with glucose carbon microspheres through one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • Acrylic acid maintained the integrity of PET fabric and introduced a quite number of carboxyl groups on the PET surface. • The surface decorated composite material possessed good adsorption property and easy recovery performance. • The glucose carbon microspheres decorated polyester fibers showed a highly selective adsorption for the cationic dyes.

<br>Display Omitted<br>• A new protocol of synchronous determination of phenolic acids (PAs) was proposed by RP-HPLC-UV with double-wavelength. • The validated results demonstrated that the proposed method was feasible to determine PAs in plant samples. • The protocol was applied for analysis PAs in <b>Caragana korshinskii</b> Kom. which was mainly rich in chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid. • Total content of PAs in leaves was the highest compared with that of flowers and bark.<br>The utilization of <b>Caragana korshinskii</b> Kom. (CK) is currently concentrated on its ecological and fuel functions. Little attention has been devoted to the analysis of their phenolic acid (PA) components. To obtain more data for further utilization of CK, a new analysis protocol was tested to determine PAs synchronously by RP-HPLC-UV with double-wavelength (280 nm and 320 nm) detection. Specifically, separation of PA components was performed on a Hypersil Gold C18 reverse phase column with gradient elution. A four-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was implemented for optimization of PA extraction. The results demonstrated that CK were rich primarily in chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid. The total content of PAs in CK leaves was the highest compared with its other parts. The distribution of total flavonoid content of CK was leaves > flowers > bark, while that of the total phenolic content of CK was flowers > leaves > bark.

Two novel organic amide alkaloids, 4-[(<i>E</i>)-<i>p</i>-coumaroylamino]butan-1-ol (<b>1</b>) and 4-[(<i>Z</i>)-<i>p</i>-coumaroylamino]butan-1-ol (<b>2</b>), together with a rare pyridoindole alkaloid, hippophamide (<b>3</b>), were isolated from the seed residue of <i>Hippophae rhamnoides</i> Linn. subsp. <i>sinensis</i> Rousi. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. The results show that compounds <b>1</b> and <b>2</b> are (<i>E</i>/<i>Z</i>)<i>-</i>isomers, compound <b>3</b>, a pyridoindole alkaloid concerted with <i>γ</i>-lactam ring.

A new triterpenoid, namely myricarin C (compound 1), together with three known compounds myricarin A (compound 2) and myricarin B (compound 3), 3α-hydroxy-D-friedoolean-14-en-28-oic acid (compound 4), was isolated from the overground part of Myricaria squamosa. Compound 2 and compound 3 existed in the solution by the form of cis-trans isomers. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. The antioxidant properties of all compounds were calculated based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that myricarin A and myricarin C had general antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 40.90 μg/ml, 42.22 μg/ml, respectively, compared to the control, rutin (5.17 μg/ml). The EC50 values of myricarin B was 195.81 μg/ml. Compound 4 had no antioxidant activities.

Anthocyanins are the main compounds in Nitraria tangutorun Bobr. The enrichment and purification of anthocyanins on macroporous resins were investigated. Regarding anthocyanin purification, static adsorption and desorption were studied. The optimal experimental conditions were the following: resin type: X-5; static adsorption time: 6h; desorption solution: ethanol-water-HCl (80:19:1, V/V/V; pH 1); desorption time: 40min. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the anthocyanins were evaluated. The anthocyanins showed ideal scavenging effects on free radicals in vitro, especially on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radical (OH). In the animal experiment, blood lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats was regulated by anthocyanin contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hyperlipidemia rats were also improved by anthocyanins. These results showed that anthocyanins from N. tangutorun Bobr. fruits had potential biological activities in vivo as well as in vitro.

AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of seed oil of Caragana korshinskii Kom. against Trichophyton mentagrophytes on an in vivo guinea pig model of dermatophytosis.METHODS: The skin of albino guinea pigs was infected with T. mentagrophytes, and the animals were divided into five groups: negative control (NC group), positive control (PC group), vehicle control, CK50% group (received topical 50% seed oil of C.korshinskii), and CK100% group (received topical 100% seed oil of C.korshinskii). Evaluation of clinical efficacy was performed 72 h after the completion of a 10-day treatment regimen. Skin biopsy samples were processed for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The infected untreated control guinea pigs showed patches of hair loss and ulcerated or scaly skin. Lower clinical scores indicate improved efficacy compared with NC. The lesion scores significantly declined in the CK50%, CK100%, and PC groups in comparison with the NC group. The CK50% group (45.31%) and the CK100% group (75%) showed clinical efficacy compared with the PC group (78.13%). In addition, no fungal elements, inflammation, or tissue destruction was observed in any of the PAS-stained sections of the infected skin in the groups treated with CK100% or 1% terbinafine. CONCLUSION: Seed oil of C.korshinskii demonstrated high antifungal efficacy in experimental dermatophytosis.


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