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Five days of integrative body-mind training (IBMT) improves attention and self-regulation in comparison with the same amount of relaxation training. This paper explores the underlying mechanisms of this finding. We measured the physiological and brain changes at rest before, during, and after 5 days of IBMT and relaxation training. During and after training, the IBMT group showed significantly better physiological reactions in heart rate, respiratory amplitude and rate, and skin conductance response (SCR) than the relaxation control. Differences in heart rate variability (HRV) and EEG power suggested greater involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the IBMT group during and after training. Imaging data demonstrated stronger subgenual and adjacent ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity in the IBMT group. Frontal midline ACC theta was correlated with highfrequency HRV, suggesting control by the ACC over parasympathetic activity. These results indicate that after 5 days of training, the IBMT group shows better regulation of the ANS by a ventral midfrontal brain system than does the relaxation group. This changed state probably reflects training in the coordination of body and mind given in the IBMT but not in the control group. These results could be useful in the design of further specific interventions.
A methanol extract of everlasting flowers of <i>Helichrysum arenarium</i> L. Moench (Asteraceae) was found to inhibit the increase in blood glucose elevation in sucrose-loaded mice at 500 mg/kg p.o. The methanol extract also inhibited the enzymatic activity against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV, IC<sub>50</sub> = 41.2 μg/ml), but did not show intestinal <i>α</i>-glucosidase inhibitory activities. From the extract, three new dimeric dihydrochalcone glycosides, arenariumosides V-VII (<i>2</i>-<i>4</i>), were isolated, and the stereostructures were elucidated based on their spectroscopic properties and chemical evidence. Of the constituents, several flavonoid constituents, including <i>2</i>-<i>4</i>, were isolated, and these isolated constituents were investigated for their DPP-IV inhibitory effects. Among them, chalconaringenin 2′-<i>O</i>-<i>β</i>-D-glucopyranoside (<i>16</i>, IC<sub>50</sub> = 23.1 μM) and aureusidin 6-<i>O</i>-<i>β</i>-D-glucopyranoside (<i>35</i>, 24.3 μM) showed relatively strong inhibitory activities.
<i>Rheum tanguticum</i> is a widely used Chinese medicinal plant. Recently, because of the great demand, the wild populations have been declining rapidly. In this study, the levels of genetic variation of 11 wild and five cultivated populations of <i>R. tanguticum</i> were investigated by ISSR markers. The 13 selected ISSR primers amplified 306 polymorphic bands out of a total of 326 (93.87 %). Based on Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s index, the genetic diversity in cultivated populations of <i>R. tanguticum</i> (<i>H</i> = 0.2490; <i>I</i> = 0.3812; <i>H</i> <sub>B</sub> = 0.3033) was relatively lower than that of wild populations (<i>H</i> = 0.2666; <i>I</i> = 0.4124; <i>H</i> <sub>B</sub> = 0.3115), although no significant differences were identified. Assignment was performed with AFLPOP program, and XGM was the most likely source population of HM. The origins of the rest cultivated populations were admixture. UPGMA and PCoA analyses showed that wild and cultivated populations were not separated into two groups, indicating that a large number of wild genotypes were maintained in the cultivated gene pool. The coefficient of genetic differentiation between wild and cultivated populations was 0.0305 (<i>G</i> <sub>st</sub>), which was in good agreement with the results of analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), in which, only 1.85 % of the total variance existed between groups of wild and cultivated populations, while 70.91 % occurred within populations and 27.24 % among populations. Together, these results indicated that cultivated populations were not genetically differentiated from wild populations. On the basis of this study, we have made some suggestions for the conservation and efficient management of the genetic resources of this important medicinal herb.
An HPLC-UV-MS method for simultaneous identification of predominant phenolics and minor nucleoside derivatives in<i> Gastrodia elata</i> was developed, which was based on their UV and MS characteristics summarized through a series of homemade reference standard experiments. Phenolics showed characteristic UV λ<sub>max</sub> at 267 nm, [M + NH₄]⁺ base peak in positive mode and [M-H]⁻ base peak in negative mode while nucleosides exhibited UV λ<sub>max</sub> at 255 nm, [M + H]⁺, [M-H + 2H₂O]⁻ or [M-H + CH₃COOH]⁻. Phenolics conjugates mainly underwent the consecutive loss of gastrodin residue (-268 U) and the combined loss of H₂O and CO<sub>2 </sub>from the citric acid unit under negative MS/MS conditions whereas nucleosides simply lost the ribose (-132 U) under positive MS/MS conditions. According to these characteristics, a special pattern under MS/MS conditions and reported compound data for<i> G. elata</i> in the literature, not only 15 phenolics were identified but also 6 nucleoside derivatives were identified. Among these compounds, seven phenolics and three nucleoside derivatives have not been reported yet from<i> G. elata</i>.
Innovative development extends the vitality of ethnomedicines. Developing ethnomedicines is not only beneficial to the public but also to the related industry and transforms economic growth, driving local social and economic development further. Its economic benefit can be used to optimize and promote the hardware and software of the platform, as well as support the sustainable development of ethnomedicines. Apart from research and discussion on the innovative development of ethnomedicines on the basis of theory and regulations, this series of articles also summarizes cases that are conducive to the overall understanding of the necessity and feasibility of the innovative development. In terms of industrial development, large enterprises and products, such as Yunnan Baiyao, Guizhou Miao ethnomedicines, Cheezheng Tibetan Medicine, products developed from Dengzhanhua (Erigeron breviscapus), the Gold series of Yi ethnomedicines, and products developed from Sanqi (Panax notoginseng), in China are introduced and summarized, focusing on resource superiority, sustainable innovation, standard research and development, and production, as well as intellectual property protection.
A chemometrics-assisted excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence method is presented for simultaneous determination of umbelliferone and scopoletin in Tibetan medicine Saussurea laniceps (SL) and traditional Chinese medicine Radix angelicae pubescentis (RAP). Using the strategy of combining EEM fluorescence data with second-order calibration method based on the alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm, the simultaneous quantification of umbelliferone and scopoletin in the two different complex systems was achieved successfully, even in the presence of potential interferents. The pretreatment is simple due to the "second-order advantage" and the use of "mathematical separation" instead of awkward "physical or chemical separation". Satisfactory results have been achieved with the limits of detection (LODs) of umbelliferone and scopoletin being 0.06ngmL(-1) and 0.16ngmL(-1), respectively. The average spike recoveries of umbelliferone and scopoletin are 98.8±4.3% and 102.5±3.3%, respectively. Besides, HPLC-DAD method was used to further validate the presented strategy, and t-test indicates that prediction results of the two methods have no significant differences. Satisfactory experimental results imply that our method is fast, low-cost and sensitive when compared with HPLC-DAD method.