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Phytochemical studies on the whole herb of Sphaerophysa salsula has resulted in the discovery of one new 8-isopentenyl isoflavone derivative, named sphaerosin s2 (3-(8-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-furo[2,3-h]chromen-3-yl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenol) (1), along with four know 8-isopentenyl isoflavone derivatives (2-5). Compounds (2, 4 and 5) were isolated for the first time from this species. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D NMR and 2D NMR data.

Background: Dracocephalum heterophyllum was a traditional Tibetan medicine possesses various pharmacological effects involved in anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities. However, its anti-hepatitis, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds have not been reported, the objective of this research work was to investigate the pharmacological activity and bioactive compounds of D. heterophyllum extracts. Results: In the present study, the anti-hepatics and antioxidant activities of four D. heterophyllum extracts (i.e. petroleum ether extracts, ethyl acetate extracts, n-BuOH extracts, and water extracts) were conducted. The main chemical constituent of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts were also isolated using chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopic methods. The anti-hepatitis assay showed that the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of D. heterophyllum significantly prolonged the mean survival times and reduced the mortality of mouse hepatitis model induced by concanavalin A (ConA). The levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase in blood serum could be decreased obviously by ethyl acetate extracts compared with ConA group (P < 0.01). The histological analysis demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extracts could inhibit apoptosis and necrosis caused by ConA. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the four extracts of D. heterophyllum were measured by DPPH assay, ABTS assay, anti-lipidperoxidation assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, ferrous metal ions chelating assay and determination of total phenolic contents. The results showed that the ethyl acetate extract had the highest antioxidant activities, followed by petroleum ether extract. Finally, nine mainly compounds were isolated from the Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts, including four triterpenes: oleanolic acid ( 1), ursolic acid ( 2), pomolic acid ( 3), 2α- hydroxyl ursolic acid ( 4), three flavonoids: apigenin-7- O-rutinoside ( 5), luteolin ( 8), diosmetin ( 9) and two phenolic acids: rosmarinic acid ( 6), methyl rosmarinate ( 7). Conclusion: The Ethyl acetate extract of D. heterophyllum had the highest anti-hepatitis and antioxidants activities, followed by petroleum ether extract. The bioactive substances may be triterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic acids, the ethyl acetate extracts of D. heterophyllum may be possible candidates in developing anti-hepatitis medicine.

Objective: To investigate the chemical constituent from the roots of Gentiana straminea.; Methods: The constituents were separated by microporous resin,silica gel,Sephadex LH-20 and preparative column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS spectral methods.; Results: Twelve chemical constituents were isolated from the roots of Gentiana straminea and their structures were identified as daucosterol( 1),β-sitosterol( 2),ursolic acid( 3),sweroside( 4),swertiamarin( 5),gentiopicroside( 6),6’-O-acetyl-gentiopicroside( 7),6’-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sweroside( 8),protocatech uic aldehyde( 9),protocatechuic acid( 10),methyl gallate( 11) and dibutyl phthalate( 12).; Conclusion: The compounds 8,9,10,11 and 12 are obtained from this plant for the first time.;

A phytochemical investigation of <b>Saxifraga tangutica</b> led to the isolation of 11 compounds, including eight diarylheptanoids (<b>1</b>-<b>6</b>, <b>10</b> and <b>11</b>) and three phenylpropanoids (<b>7</b>-<b>9</b>). The chemical structures were established by extensive analysis of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data or comparison with literature data. In the present research, we report the isolated compounds <b>1</b>-<b>11</b>, for the first time, in the species <b>S. tangutica</b>. Moreover, compounds <b>1</b>, <b>2</b> and <b>4</b>-<b>11</b> have not been reported from any species in Saxifragaceae family. Furthermore, we discuss the chemotaxonomic significance of the isolated compounds.<br>• Eight diarylheptanoids and three phenylpropanoids have been isolated from <b>Saxifraga tangutica.</b> • Compounds <b>1</b>-<b>11</b> are firstly reported in the species <b>Saxifraga tangutica.</b> • Compounds <b>1</b>, <b>2</b> and <b>4</b>-<b>11</b> are firstly isolated from genus <b>Saxifraga</b> or family Saxifragaceae.

To evaluate the correlation between the body constitution types of Tibetan medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The cluster sampling method was employed to recruit participants from a university in the Tibet Autonomous Region. Tibetan medicine and TCM questionnaires were respectively used to assess the participants' constitution information. Descriptive statistics were applied to analyze the baseline and constitution characteristics of the participants. Two-factor correlation analysis and the paired chi-square test were applied to analyze the correlation between Tibetan and TCM constitution types. Data from 466 Tibetan students were analyzed. The mean scores of the rlung, mkhris pa, and bad kan constitution types in Tibetan medicine were 43.2 (11.1), 42.1 (10.1), and 45.0 (8.0), respectively; participants with the three-factor convergence body constitution type accounted for 13.7% of the whole population. Among the TCM constitution types, qi stagnation was the most common (21.5%), followed by the balance type (16.5%); the other constitutions detected were qi deficiency, yin deficiency, and yang deficiency. The rate of consistency for the identification of the three-factor convergence constitution in Tibetan medicine and the balance constitution in TCM was 89.1%, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.57 (<ce:italic>P</ce:italic> > .05). The rlung constitution in Tibetan medicine was associated with the yin deficiency, yang deficiency, and blood stasis constitutions in TCM. The mkhris pa constitution in Tibetan medicine was associated with the damp heat and yin deficiency constitutions in TCM. The bad kan constitution in Tibetan medicine was associated with the phlegm dampness, qi deficiency, and yin deficiency constitutions in TCM. There is a correlation between the body constitution types of Tibetan medicine and TCM. The reliability and validity of the Questionnaire for Tibetan Medicine Constitution requires improvement, and more studies with larger sample sizes and more varied populations are warranted to verify the correlation between Tibetan medicine and TCM constitutions.

Nitraria tangutorum Bor., having edible berries, is valued for reputed health benefits in Qinghai-Tibet plateau. The phytochemical research on the fruit juice of N. tangutorum led to the isolation of twenty-six compounds including five new compounds, tangutorids A-D (1, 2, 3a, and 3b), and (3E,5E)-7-O-β-glucosyl-4-(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)hepta-3,5-dienoic acid (15). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Tangutorids A-F were the first examples of glucose-derived β-carbolines from natural products. The biogenetic pathways of 1-8 were proposed to involve Pictet-Spengler reactions and described starting from the co-isolated tryptophan (10) and corresponding aldehydes. All isolates were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Compounds 21, 22, and 24 showed antioxidant activity with SC50 values ranging from 12.2±1.9 to 30.4±2.7μg/mL, and compound 1 showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effect with IC50 value of 63.3±4.6μg/mL.

A new diarylheptanoid, (5S)-1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptan-3-one-5-O-β-D-6-Oacetylglucoside (<i>1</i>), together with two known diarylheptanoids, (5S)-1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptan-3-one-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (<i>2</i>) and hirsutanonol (<i>3</i>), were isolated from Saxifraga tangutica. The structures of <i>1-3</i> were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, including high-resolution mass spectra (HR-ESI-MS). It was found that the new compound was acetyl-substituted (5S)-1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptan-3-one-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside.

"Zuotai" is one of the main raw material of many rare Tibetan medicine, and it plays a important role in the system of Tibetan medicine. There are some toxic heavy metals in "Zuotai", such as Hg, Au, Pb and so on. As a result, it's urgent to study the safety and effectiveness of "Zuotai" in depth. This paper will analyze and induce the resent progress of the study about "Zuotai". With constipation, "Zuotai" and "Zuotai" as key words, CNKI, CHINAINFO, CQVIP were retrieved, Springer were retrieved besides. Relevant 86 references were obtained. Twenty-two for reference were adopted through screening. The paper reviewed the resent progress of the study about "Zuotai" in chemical composition, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, toxicology and clinical application. This will establish the basis for further study.

ETHNOPHARMOCOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herbo-metallic preparations have a long history in the treatment of diseases, and are still used today for refractory diseases, as adjuncts to standard therapy, or for economic reasons in developing countries.AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review uses cinnabar (HgS) and realgar (As4S4) as mineral examples to discuss their occurrence, therapeutic use, pharmacology, toxicity in traditional medicine mixtures, and research perspectives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search on cinnabar and realgar from PubMed, Chinese pharmacopeia, Google and other sources was carried out. Traditional medicines containing both cinnabar and realgar (An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan, Hua-Feng-Dan); mainly cinnabar (Zhu-Sha-An-Shen Wan; Zuotai and Dangzuo), and mainly realgar (Huang-Dai Pian; Liu-Shen Wan; Niu-Huang-Jie-Du) are discussed. RESULTS: Both cinnabar and realgar used in traditional medicines are subjected to special preparation procedures to remove impurities. Metals in these traditional medicines are in the sulfide forms which are different from environmental mercurials (HgCl2, MeHg) or arsenicals (NaAsO2, NaH2AsO4). Cinnabar and/or realgar are seldom used alone, but rather as mixtures with herbs and/or animal products in traditional medicines. Advanced technologies are now used to characterize these preparations. The bioaccessibility, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of these herbo-metallic preparations are different from environmental metals. The rationale of including metals in traditional remedies and their interactions with drugs need to be justified. At higher therapeutic doses, balance of the benefits and risks is critical. Surveillance of patients using these herbo-metallic preparations is desired. CONCLUSION: Chemical forms of mercury and arsenic are a major determinant of their disposition, efficacy and toxicity, and the use of total Hg and As alone for risk assessment of metals in traditional medicines is insufficient.

Four iridoid glucosides, shanzhiside methyl ester, phloyoside II, chlorotuberside, and penstemonoside, were isolated and purified from an herbal medicinal plant for the first time by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (5:14:12, v/v/v). A total of 37mg of shanzhiside methyl ester, 29mg of phloyoside II, 27mg of chlorotuberside, and 21mg of penstemonoside with the purity of 99.2%, 98.5%, 97.3%, and 99.3%, respectively, were obtained in one-step separation within 4h from 150mg of crude extract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of separation and purification of iridoid glucosides from natural sources by HSCCC. The chemical structures of all the four compounds were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR.

A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection was established to simultaneously determine the seven bioactive lignans in <i>Herpetospermum caudigerum</i>, namely ent-isolariciresinol (<b>1</b>), dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (<b>2</b>), herpetrione (<b>3</b>), herpetin (<b>4</b>), herpetetrone (<b>5</b>), herpetotriol (<b>6</b>) amd herpetal (<b>7</b>). The HPLC assay was performed on a Restek Pinnacle DB C<sub>18</sub> column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid within 65 min. The detection wavelength was 240 nm. The flow-rate was 1.0 mL/min. All calibration curves showed good linearity (<i>r</i>² > 0.9998) within test ranges. The method was reproducible with intra- and inter-day variation of less than 1.98%. The method provided good accuracy with recoveries in the range 95.19-102.64% with RSDs less than 1.52%. The method was successfully applied to the quantification of seven constituents in 15 <i>H. caudigerum</i> samples collected from different cities. The results indicated that the developed assay could be considered as a suitable quality control method for <i>H. caudigerum</i>. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

<br>Display Omitted<br>• Three new monoterpene glycosides (<b>1</b>-<b>3</b>) were isolated from <b>Sibiraea laevigata</b> (L.) Maxim. • Fourteen known compounds (<b>4</b>-<b>17</b>) were also obtained from the title plant. • All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-oxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. • Compounds <b>7</b> and <b>17</b> exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 220.0 and 113.0 μM, respectively.<br>Three new compounds, 3,7-dimethy-7-methoxy-3-octene-5-one-1-<b>O</b>-<b>β</b>-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3,7-dimethy-7-methoxy-3(<b>Z</b>)-octene-5-one-1-<b>O</b>-<b>β</b>-d-glucopyranoside (2) and 3,7-dimethy-3-hydroxy-6-octene-5-one-1-<b>O</b>-<b>β</b>-d-glucopyranoside (3), together with fourteen known compounds (4-17) were isolated from the leaves and shoots of <b>S. laevigata</b>. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR, as well as mass spectral data. All isolates were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The results demonstrated that 3,7-dimethyl-3(Z),6-ocatdien-5-one-1-<b>O</b>-<b>β</b>-d-glucoside (7) and sitosteryl <b>β</b>-d-glucoside (17) exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory effects with IC50 values of 220.0 and 113.0 μM, respectively.

<br>Display Omitted<br>• Two new stilbenoid derivatives were isolated from <b>Sphaerophysa salsula</b>. • One compound were isolated for the first time from this species. • Eight known compounds were isolated from the plant. • These compounds enriched the structural types of natural products from <b>Sphaerophysa salsula</b>.<br>Two new compounds, gnetuhainins Fa (<b>1</b>) and cassigarols Ea (<b>2</b>), were isolated from the whole herb of <b>Sphaerophysa salsula</b> along with eight known compounds (<b>3</b>-<b>10</b>). The compounds (<b>4</b>) were isolated for the first time from this species. Their structures were elucidated by ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D NMR and 2D NMR data.