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Phytochemical studies on the whole herb of Sphaerophysa salsula has resulted in the discovery of one new 8-isopentenyl isoflavone derivative, named sphaerosin s2 (3-(8-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-furo[2,3-h]chromen-3-yl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenol) (1), along with four know 8-isopentenyl isoflavone derivatives (2-5). Compounds (2, 4 and 5) were isolated for the first time from this species. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D NMR and 2D NMR data.
Background: Dracocephalum heterophyllum was a traditional Tibetan medicine possesses various pharmacological effects involved in anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities. However, its anti-hepatitis, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds have not been reported, the objective of this research work was to investigate the pharmacological activity and bioactive compounds of D. heterophyllum extracts. Results: In the present study, the anti-hepatics and antioxidant activities of four D. heterophyllum extracts (i.e. petroleum ether extracts, ethyl acetate extracts, n-BuOH extracts, and water extracts) were conducted. The main chemical constituent of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts were also isolated using chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopic methods. The anti-hepatitis assay showed that the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of D. heterophyllum significantly prolonged the mean survival times and reduced the mortality of mouse hepatitis model induced by concanavalin A (ConA). The levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase in blood serum could be decreased obviously by ethyl acetate extracts compared with ConA group (P < 0.01). The histological analysis demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extracts could inhibit apoptosis and necrosis caused by ConA. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the four extracts of D. heterophyllum were measured by DPPH assay, ABTS assay, anti-lipidperoxidation assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, ferrous metal ions chelating assay and determination of total phenolic contents. The results showed that the ethyl acetate extract had the highest antioxidant activities, followed by petroleum ether extract. Finally, nine mainly compounds were isolated from the Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts, including four triterpenes: oleanolic acid ( 1), ursolic acid ( 2), pomolic acid ( 3), 2α- hydroxyl ursolic acid ( 4), three flavonoids: apigenin-7- O-rutinoside ( 5), luteolin ( 8), diosmetin ( 9) and two phenolic acids: rosmarinic acid ( 6), methyl rosmarinate ( 7). Conclusion: The Ethyl acetate extract of D. heterophyllum had the highest anti-hepatitis and antioxidants activities, followed by petroleum ether extract. The bioactive substances may be triterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic acids, the ethyl acetate extracts of D. heterophyllum may be possible candidates in developing anti-hepatitis medicine.
• <b>Saxifraga tangutica</b> Engl. is a promising source of antioxidants against DPPH and FRAP. • The 50% ethanol extract of S. <b>tangutica</b> showed strong antioxidative activity against DPPH and FRAP. • Eight phenols were isolated from S. <b>tangutica</b>; all of the compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. • The antioxidative S. <b>tangutica</b> extracts and isolated phenols supports the antioxidant of this plant.<br><b>Saxifraga tangutica</b> Engl., is a medicinal herb that grows on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Extracts and phenols from the Qinghai population have been subjected to antioxidative assays against DPPH radical-scavenging and reducing power (FRAP). The 50% ethanol extract showed strong antioxidative activity against DPPH and FRAP, with IC50 ± SEM [μg/mL] values of 9.38 ± 0.46 and 15.46 ± 0.52, respectively. The antioxidative activity-guided fractionations were performed according to the DPPH and FRAP screening results. Fourteen fractions from the 50% ethanol extract showed dissimilar antioxidative activity against DPPH and FRAP of 8.16 ± 0.76 ∼ 38.42 ± 0.58 μg/mL and 13.22 ± 0.68 ∼ 61.47 ± 0.49 μg/mL. The chemical assay-guided separation of the active fractions (fractions 3, 6, 7 and 8) led to eight phenols: protocatechuic aldehyde (<b>1</b>), ethyl gallate (<b>2</b>), rhododendrin (<b>3</b>), <b>p</b>-hydroxyacetophenone (<b>4</b>), rhododendrol (<b>5</b>), protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (<b>6</b>), frambinone (<b>7</b>) and ethylparaben (<b>8</b>). All phenols are reported here for the first time from <b>S. tangutica</b> Engl. Protocatechuic aldehyde (<b>1</b>), ethyl gallate (<b>2</b>), rhododendrin (<b>3</b>) and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (<b>6</b>) showed strong antioxidative activities (IC50 ± SEM [mM] between 8.79 ± 0.15 and 4.25 ± 0.47 and between 6.15 ± 0.48 and 2.83 ± 0.49) against DPPH and FRAP.
A phytochemical investigation of <b>Saxifraga tangutica</b> led to the isolation of 11 compounds, including eight diarylheptanoids (<b>1</b>-<b>6</b>, <b>10</b> and <b>11</b>) and three phenylpropanoids (<b>7</b>-<b>9</b>). The chemical structures were established by extensive analysis of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data or comparison with literature data. In the present research, we report the isolated compounds <b>1</b>-<b>11</b>, for the first time, in the species <b>S. tangutica</b>. Moreover, compounds <b>1</b>, <b>2</b> and <b>4</b>-<b>11</b> have not been reported from any species in Saxifragaceae family. Furthermore, we discuss the chemotaxonomic significance of the isolated compounds.<br>• Eight diarylheptanoids and three phenylpropanoids have been isolated from <b>Saxifraga tangutica.</b> • Compounds <b>1</b>-<b>11</b> are firstly reported in the species <b>Saxifraga tangutica.</b> • Compounds <b>1</b>, <b>2</b> and <b>4</b>-<b>11</b> are firstly isolated from genus <b>Saxifraga</b> or family Saxifragaceae.
The separation of high-purity compounds from traditional Tibetan medicines plays an important role in investigating their bioactivity. Nevertheless, it is often quite difficult to isolate compounds with high purity because of the complexity of traditional Tibetan medicines. In this work, an offline two-dimensional reversed-phase preparative method was successfully developed for the separation of high-purity compounds from Oxytropis falcata. Based on the analysis results, an ODS C18 prep column was used for first-dimensional preparation, and 14.8 g of the crude sample was separated into five fractions with a recovery of 74.6%. Then, an XAqua C18 prep column was used to isolate high-purity compounds in the second-dimensional preparation because its separation selectivity is different with the ODS C18 stationary phase. As a result, eight compounds in the crude sample were isolated in more than 98% purity. This is the first report of trans-cinnamic acid (1) and trifolirhizin (2) from Oxytropis falcata. This method has the potential to be an efficient separation method of high-purity compounds from Oxytropis falcata and it shows great promise for the separation of high-purity compounds from complex samples.
Nitraria tangutorum Bor., having edible berries, is valued for reputed health benefits in Qinghai-Tibet plateau. The phytochemical research on the fruit juice of N. tangutorum led to the isolation of twenty-six compounds including five new compounds, tangutorids A-D (1, 2, 3a, and 3b), and (3E,5E)-7-O-β-glucosyl-4-(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)hepta-3,5-dienoic acid (15). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Tangutorids A-F were the first examples of glucose-derived β-carbolines from natural products. The biogenetic pathways of 1-8 were proposed to involve Pictet-Spengler reactions and described starting from the co-isolated tryptophan (10) and corresponding aldehydes. All isolates were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Compounds 21, 22, and 24 showed antioxidant activity with SC50 values ranging from 12.2±1.9 to 30.4±2.7μg/mL, and compound 1 showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effect with IC50 value of 63.3±4.6μg/mL.
A new diarylheptanoid, (5S)-1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptan-3-one-5-O-β-D-6-Oacetylglucoside (<i>1</i>), together with two known diarylheptanoids, (5S)-1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptan-3-one-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (<i>2</i>) and hirsutanonol (<i>3</i>), were isolated from Saxifraga tangutica. The structures of <i>1-3</i> were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, including high-resolution mass spectra (HR-ESI-MS). It was found that the new compound was acetyl-substituted (5S)-1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptan-3-one-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside.
Traditional Tibetan medicine provides an abundant source of knowledge on human ailments and their treatment. As such, it is necessary to explore their active single compounds used to treat these ailments to discover lead compounds with good pharmacologic properties. In this present work, animal medicine, Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi extracts have been separated using a two-dimensional preparative chromatographic method to obtain single compounds with high purity as part of the following pharmacological research. Five high-purity cyclic dipeptides from chromatography work were studied for their dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitory activity on recombinant human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase enzyme and compound Fr. 1-4 was found to contain satisfying inhibition activity. The molecular modeling study suggests that the active compound Fr. 1-4 may have a teriflunomide-like binding mode. Then, the energy decomposition study suggests that the hydrogen bond between Fr. 1-4 and Arg136 can improve the binding mode to indirectly increase the van der Waals binding energy. All the results above together come to the conclusion that the 2, 5-diketopiperazine structure group can interact with the polar residues well in the active pocket using electrostatic power. If some proper hydrophobic groups can be added to the sides of the 2, 5-diketopiperazine group, it is believed that better 2, 5-diketopiperazine dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors will be found in the future.
Animal medicine is an important part in traditional Tibetan medicine. However, information about the chemical composition of animal medicine is very limited, and there is a lack of comprehensive chromatographic purification methods. In the present work, animal medicine Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi was taken as an example and a novel two-dimensional preparative chromatographic method was established for the preparation of single compounds with high purity from the extract of Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi. The first-dimension preparation was carried on a DAISO Silica prep column, and ten fractions were obtained from the 112.3 g crude sample within 12 injections. A diol prep column used in nonaqueous mobile phase was selected for the second-dimension preparation. The purity of the compounds isolated from the crude extract was >98%, which indicated that the method built in this work was efficient to manufacture single compounds of high purity from the extract of Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi. Additionally, this method showed great potential in the purification of weakly polar chemicals and it could act as a good example in the purification of other traditional animal medicines.
Abstract Lancea tibetica is an important traditional Tibetan medicinal plant that grows on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with great development potential in pharmaceutical industry. In this study, a combinative method using HPLC-DPPH and two-dimensional liquid chromatography has been developed to identify and separate antioxidants from Lancea tibetica. Under the target-guidance of HPLC-DPPH experiment, three antioxidant fractions from Lancea tibetica were recognized. Then, separation of the three fractions using two-dimensional semi-preparation liquid chromatography led to seven phenylpropanoids: (+)-pinoresinol-β-D-glucoside (1), isoacteoside (2), acteoside (3), tibeticoside (4),epipinoresinol (5), anthelminthicol (6) and phillygenol (7). As a result, seven major antioxidants in Lancea tibetica were isolated with more than 96% purity. Furthermore, in vitro bioassay against DPPH revealed compounds 1 – 7 with IC 50 values ranging from 6.16 ± 0.08 to 25.09 ± 0.11 (μM) and compounds 1 , 2 and 3 showed activities stronger than the two reference antioxidants (vitamin C, rutin), with IC 50 values of 6.16 ± 0.08, 8.93 ± 0.06 and 7.98 ± 0.05 (μM), respectively. Results of the present study indicated that the method was an efficient technique to systematically screen and isolate antioxidants from medicine crops. Graphical abstract Unlabelled Image Highlights • A novel screen and separation method for purification of antioxidants directly. • Seven antioxidants isolated from Lancea tibetica bioactivity-guided. • Isolated antioxidants with IC 50 values from 6.16 ± 0.08 to 25.09 ± 0.11 (μM). • The first report on antioxidant capacity of the compounds from Lancea tibetica.
Dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) technique was employed for the extraction of polysaccharides from Lycium ruthenicum (LRP). The extracting parameters were optimized by using three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) based on the single-factor experiments. RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The optimum extraction parameters for the yield of polysaccharide were ratio of water to raw material 31.5 mL/g, extracting time 25.8 min and microwave power 544.0 W. Polysaccharide was analyzed by chemical methods and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR). The antioxidant activities of LRP were investigated including scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide and free radicals of superoxide anion in vitro. The results of antioxidant activity exhibited LRP had the potential to be explored as novel natural antioxidant for using in functional foods or medicine.
Traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) has been valuable for the identification of new therapeutic leads. Nevertheless, reports about the chemical constituents of TTM are meager owing to the lack of suitable purification techniques. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (2D RP/HILIC) technique guided by on-line HPLC-DPPH has been established for the isolation of pure antioxidants from the extract of Dracocephalum heterophyllum . According to the chromatographic recognition outcome of the HPLC-DPPH system, the first-dimensional (1D) separation on the Megress C18 preparative column yielded 6 antioxidative fractions (61.4% recovery) from the ethyl acetate fraction (6.1 g). In the second-dimensional (2D) separation, a HILIC XAmide preparative column was employed. In total, 8 antioxidants were isolated from D. heterophyllum with a purity of >95%, which indicated the efficiency of the developed method to prepare antioxidative compounds with high purity from plant extracts. In addition, this method was highly efficient for the preparation of structural analogues of the antioxidative polyphenols and could be applied for the purification of structural analogues from other resources. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Herbal plants are significant for the reason that they have a great potential in discovering drug precursors. However, how to purify compounds with higher purity from them is a question which needs to be discussed. In present study, an offline 2D reversed-phase (RP) preparative liquid chromatography coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was successfully developed for the separation of flavonolignan diastereoisomers from Arenaria kansuensis. Based on the analysis of results, the major conclusion that we have drawn from it is a RP-SPE was selected for enriching target flavonolignan sample from A. kansuensis. After that, an ODS preparative column was used for 1D preparation, and the target sample (4.6 g) was divided into five fractions with a recovery of 83.9%. Then, a C18HCE preparative column, a polar-modified RP (polar-copolymerized) type, was used for isolating flavonolignan diastereoisomers in the 2D preparation. By establishing optimal 2D chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns and normal-phase (NP) columns were tested simultaneously, and the result showed that diastereoisomers are not suitable for HILIC and NP chromatography mode. Our study resulted in a tricin and five analogous derivative flavonolignans with purity >98% were successfully purified from A. kansuensis. This is the initial report of Salcolin C, Salcolin B, Tricin 4'-O-(C-veratroylglycol) ether and 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin D from A. kansuensis. In addition, it tended to be the first time that Tricin 4'-O-(C-veratroylglycol) ether is isolated from natural resource. This method has great potential for efficiently isolating flavonolignan diastereoisomers from A. kansuensis, and it shows a great prospect for the separation of flavonolignans from complex samples.
Four iridoid glucosides, shanzhiside methyl ester, phloyoside II, chlorotuberside, and penstemonoside, were isolated and purified from an herbal medicinal plant for the first time by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (5:14:12, v/v/v). A total of 37mg of shanzhiside methyl ester, 29mg of phloyoside II, 27mg of chlorotuberside, and 21mg of penstemonoside with the purity of 99.2%, 98.5%, 97.3%, and 99.3%, respectively, were obtained in one-step separation within 4h from 150mg of crude extract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of separation and purification of iridoid glucosides from natural sources by HSCCC. The chemical structures of all the four compounds were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR.
An orthogonally (80.3%) preparative two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method has been established for the isolation and purification of flavonoids from Saxifraga tangutica. Initially, flavonoids were enriched by means of a middle-pressure chromatographic tower (containing middle chromatogram isolated gel). In the first dimension, a XION preparative column was used to separate the flavonoid fractions under the guidance of characteristic ultraviolet absorption spectra of flavonoids and nine flavonoid fractions were obtained. Then, the coeluted flavonoid fractions were selected for further purification via reversed-phase liquid chromatography with the parent ion peak of quercetin (303), kaempferol (287), or isorhamnetin (317). Several flavonoids could be separated from each hydrophilic interaction chromatography fraction; furthermore, flavonoids with poor resolution in one-dimensional liquid chromatography were isolated in two-dimensional liquid chromatography due to the orthogonality. In addition, this technique was valuable for trace flavonoids, which were concentrated in the first stage and separated in the second stage. In total, 18 flavonoids with either quercetin, kaempferol, or isorhamnetin parent nuclei were targetedly obtained, and 15 flavonoids were obtained for the first time from S. tangutica. These results established that the off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography technique was efficient for the isolation of flavonoids from Saxifraga tangutica.
<br>Display Omitted<br>• Three new monoterpene glycosides (<b>1</b>-<b>3</b>) were isolated from <b>Sibiraea laevigata</b> (L.) Maxim. • Fourteen known compounds (<b>4</b>-<b>17</b>) were also obtained from the title plant. • All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-oxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. • Compounds <b>7</b> and <b>17</b> exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 220.0 and 113.0 μM, respectively.<br>Three new compounds, 3,7-dimethy-7-methoxy-3-octene-5-one-1-<b>O</b>-<b>β</b>-d-glucopyranoside (1), 3,7-dimethy-7-methoxy-3(<b>Z</b>)-octene-5-one-1-<b>O</b>-<b>β</b>-d-glucopyranoside (2) and 3,7-dimethy-3-hydroxy-6-octene-5-one-1-<b>O</b>-<b>β</b>-d-glucopyranoside (3), together with fourteen known compounds (4-17) were isolated from the leaves and shoots of <b>S. laevigata</b>. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR, as well as mass spectral data. All isolates were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The results demonstrated that 3,7-dimethyl-3(Z),6-ocatdien-5-one-1-<b>O</b>-<b>β</b>-d-glucoside (7) and sitosteryl <b>β</b>-d-glucoside (17) exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory effects with IC50 values of 220.0 and 113.0 μM, respectively.
Traditional Tibetan medicine is important for discovery of drug precursors. However, information about the chemical composition of traditional Tibetan medicine is very limited due to the lack of appropriate chromatographic purification methods. In the present work, A. kansuensis was taken as an example and a novel two-dimensional reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography(HILIC) method based on on-line HPLC-DPPH bioactivity-guided assay was developed for the purification of analogue antioxidant compounds with high purity from the extract of A. kansuensis. Based on the separation results of many different chromatographic stationary phases, the first-dimensional (1D) preparation was carried on a RP-C18HCE prep column, and 2 antioxidant fractions were obtained from the 800mg crude sample with a recovery of 56.7%. A HILIC-XAmide prep column was selected for the second-dimensional (2D) preparation. Finally, a novel antioxidant β-carboline Alkaloids (Glusodichotomine AK) and 4 known compounds (Tricin, Homoeriodictyol, Luteolin, Glucodichotomine B) were purified from A. kansuensis. The purity of the compounds isolated from the crude extract was >98%, which indicated that the method built in this work was efficient to manufacture single analogue antioxidant compounds of high purity from the extract of A. kansuensis. Additionally, this method showed great potential in the preparation of analogue structure antioxidant compounds and can serve as a good example for the purification of analogue structure antioxidant carboline alkaloids and flavonoids from other plant materials.
Traditional Tibetan medicine is important for discovery of drug precursors. However, knowledge of the chemical composition of traditional Tibetan medicines is very limited due to the lack of appropriate chromatographic purification methods. In the present work, Salvia prattii was taken as an example, and an off-line hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography preparative method was developed for the purification of phenylpropanoids with high purity from a crude sample of Salvia prattii. Based on the separation results of four different chromatographic stationary phases, the first-dimensional preparation was performed on an XAmide preparative column with the crude sample concentration of 62.0 mg/mL, and five main fractions were obtained from the 12.4 g crude sample with a recovery of 54.8%. An XCharge C18 preparative column was applied in the second-dimensional preparation to further isolate the phenylpropanoids from the redissolved first-dimensional fractions with concentration of approximately 50.0 mg/mL. The purities of the phenylpropanoids isolated from the crude sample of Salvia prattii were higher than 98%, indicating that the method was efficient for the purification of phenylpropanoids with high purity from Salvia prattii. Additionally, this method showed great potential in the preparation of phenylpropanoids and can serve as a good example for the purification of phenylpropanoids from other plant materials.