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<br>Display Omitted<br>• 4′-Carbonyl chloride rosamine was synthesized and used for NTs by UHPLC-MS/MS. • <b>In situ</b> UA-DDLLME was reported for the simultaneous determination of AANTs and MANTs. • The method was sensitive, selective, low matrix effect, speedy and eco-friendly. • A new analytical tool in diagnosis of AD-related disease.<br>Neurotransmitters (NTs) may play an important role in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In order to investigate the potential links, a new simple, fast, accurate and sensitive analytical method, based on <b>in situ</b> ultrasound-assisted derivatization dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (<b>in situ</b> UA-DDLLME) coupled with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), has been developed and validated. The quantitation of amino acid neurotransmitters (AANTs) and monoamine neurotransmitters (MANTs) in urine of AD rats were performed in this work. The <b>in situ</b> UA-DDLLME procedure involved the rapid injection of the mixture of low toxic 4-bromoanisole (extractant) and acetonitrile (dispersant), which containing the new designed and synthesized 4′-carbonyl chloride rosamine (CCR) as derivatization reagent, into the aqueous phase of real sample and buffer. Under the selected conditions, the derivatization and microextraction of analytes were simultaneously completed within 1 min. Good linearity for each analyte (R > 0.992) was observed with low limit of detections (LODs, S/N > 3). Moreover, the proposed method was compared with direct detection or other reported methods, and the results showed that low matrix effects and good recoveries results were obtained in this work. Taken together, <b>in situ</b> UA-DDLLME coupled with UHPLC-MS/MS analysis was demonstrated to be a good method for sensitive, accurate and simultaneous monitoring of AANTs and MANTs. This method would be expected to be highly useful in AD diseases’ clinical diagnostics and may have potential value in monitoring the efficacy of treatment.

BackgroundMacrophage migration inhibitory factor is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been associated with various psychiatric disorders. MicroRNA-451a can directly target macrophage migration inhibitory factor and downregulate its expression in cells. However, the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and microRNA-451a in psychiatric patients treated with psychotherapeutic interventions is unknown. In this study, our aim was to investigate levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its regulating microRNA-451a in patients with depression, anxiety, or stress and adjustment disorders who underwent mindfulness-based therapy or treatment as usual. Methods A total of 168 patients with psychiatric disorders were included from a randomized controlled trial that compared mindfulness-based therapy with treatment as usual. Plasma levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and microRNA-451a were measured at baseline and after the 8-week follow-up using Luminex assay and qPCR. Results Macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels decreased significantly in patients posttreatment, whereas microRNA-451a levels showed a nonsignificant change. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels were inversely associated with microRNA-451a expression levels at baseline (β=−0.04, P=.008). The change in macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels (follow-up levels minus baseline levels) was associated with the change in microRNA-451a (follow-up levels minus baseline levels) (β=−0.06, P < .0001). The change in either macrophage migration inhibitory factor or microRNA-451a was not associated with improvement in psychiatric symptoms. Conclusion We demonstrate that the levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreased after psychotherapeutic interventions in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, this reduction was not associated with an improvement in psychiatric symptoms in response to the treatment. We also found an association between macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its regulating microRNA. However, this association needs to be further examined in future studies.

BackgroundMacrophage migration inhibitory factor is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been associated with various psychiatric disorders. MicroRNA-451a can directly target macrophage migration inhibitory factor and downregulate its expression in cells. However, the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and microRNA-451a in psychiatric patients treated with psychotherapeutic interventions is unknown. In this study, our aim was to investigate levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its regulating microRNA-451a in patients with depression, anxiety, or stress and adjustment disorders who underwent mindfulness-based therapy or treatment as usual. Methods A total of 168 patients with psychiatric disorders were included from a randomized controlled trial that compared mindfulness-based therapy with treatment as usual. Plasma levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and microRNA-451a were measured at baseline and after the 8-week follow-up using Luminex assay and qPCR. Results Macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels decreased significantly in patients posttreatment, whereas microRNA-451a levels showed a nonsignificant change. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels were inversely associated with microRNA-451a expression levels at baseline (β=−0.04, P=.008). The change in macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels (follow-up levels minus baseline levels) was associated with the change in microRNA-451a (follow-up levels minus baseline levels) (β=−0.06, P < .0001). The change in either macrophage migration inhibitory factor or microRNA-451a was not associated with improvement in psychiatric symptoms. Conclusion We demonstrate that the levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreased after psychotherapeutic interventions in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, this reduction was not associated with an improvement in psychiatric symptoms in response to the treatment. We also found an association between macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its regulating microRNA. However, this association needs to be further examined in future studies.

BackgroundMacrophage migration inhibitory factor is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been associated with various psychiatric disorders. MicroRNA-451a can directly target macrophage migration inhibitory factor and downregulate its expression in cells. However, the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and microRNA-451a in psychiatric patients treated with psychotherapeutic interventions is unknown. In this study, our aim was to investigate levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its regulating microRNA-451a in patients with depression, anxiety, or stress and adjustment disorders who underwent mindfulness-based therapy or treatment as usual. Methods A total of 168 patients with psychiatric disorders were included from a randomized controlled trial that compared mindfulness-based therapy with treatment as usual. Plasma levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and microRNA-451a were measured at baseline and after the 8-week follow-up using Luminex assay and qPCR. Results Macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels decreased significantly in patients posttreatment, whereas microRNA-451a levels showed a nonsignificant change. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels were inversely associated with microRNA-451a expression levels at baseline (β=−0.04, P=.008). The change in macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels (follow-up levels minus baseline levels) was associated with the change in microRNA-451a (follow-up levels minus baseline levels) (β=−0.06, P < .0001). The change in either macrophage migration inhibitory factor or microRNA-451a was not associated with improvement in psychiatric symptoms. Conclusion We demonstrate that the levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreased after psychotherapeutic interventions in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, this reduction was not associated with an improvement in psychiatric symptoms in response to the treatment. We also found an association between macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its regulating microRNA. However, this association needs to be further examined in future studies.

BackgroundIndividual-based cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is in short supply and expensive. Aims The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to compare mindfulness-based group therapy with treatment as usual (primarily individual-based CBT) in primary care patients with depressive, anxiety or stress and adjustment disorders. Method This 8-week RCT (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01476371) was conducted during spring 2012 at 16 general practices in Southern Sweden. Eligible patients (aged 20–64 years) scored $10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, $7 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale or 13–34 on the Montgomery–åsberg Depression Rating Scale (self-rated version). The power calculations were based on non-inferiority. In total, 215 patients were randomised. Ordinal mixed models were used for the analysis. Results For all scales and in both groups, the scores decreased significantly. There were no significant differences between the mindfulness and control groups. Conclusions Mindfulness-based group therapy was non-inferior to treatment as usual for patients with depressive, anxiety or stress and adjustment disorders.

<br>Display Omitted<br>• A new coupled method of stable isotope-labeling derivatization with UA-DLLME was reported. • Simultaneous determination of multiple neurotransmitters with UHPLC-MS/MS. • Heavy labeled d3-MASC standards were used as the internal standards for quantification. • The method was sensitive, accurate and low matrix effect. • Application for neurotransmitters dynamic changes in rats brain microdialysates.<br>In this work, for the first time, a new hyphenated technique of stable isotope-labeling derivatization-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed for the simultaneous determination of monoamine neurotransmitters (MANTs) and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites. The developed method was based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection using multiple-reaction monitoring mode. A pair of mass spectrometry sensitizing reagents, d0-10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride and d3-10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride, as stable isotope probes was utilized to facilely label neurotransmitters, respectively. The heavy labeled MANTs standards were prepared and used as internal standards for quantification to minimize the matrix effects in mass spectrometry analysis. Low toxic bromobenzene (extractant) and acetonitrile (dispersant) were utilized in microextraction procedure. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was observed with the limits of detection (S/N > 3) and limits of quantification (S/N > 10) in the range of 0.002-0.010 and 0.015-0.040 nmol/L, respectively. Meanwhile, it also brought acceptable precision (4.2-8.8%, peak area RSDs %) and accuracy (recovery, 96.9-104.1%) results. This method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites in rat brain microdialysates of Parkinson's disease and normal rats. This provided a new method for the neurotransmitters related studies in the future.

High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for the first time to isolate and purify four cis-trans isomers of coumaroylspermidine analogs from Safflower. HSCCC separation was achieved with a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-methanol-water (1:1:1, v/v/v) with the upper phase as the mobile phase. In a single run, a total of 1.3mg of N(1), N(5), N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (EEE), 4.4mg of N(1)(E)-N(5)-(Z)-N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (EZE), 7.2mg of N(1)(Z)-N(5)-(Z)-N(10)-(E)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (ZZE), and 11.5mg of N(1),N(5),N(10)-(Z)-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine (ZZZ) were obtained from 100mg of crude sample. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the purities of these four components are 95.5%, 98.1%, 97.5% and 96.2%, respectively. The chemical structures were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the protective effect of Herpetospermum pedunculosum (H. pedunculosum) seed oil against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage.METHODS: This experimental study was conducted at the Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Yantai University, China from November 2012 to May 2013. The H. pedunculosum seed oil was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide. The antioxidant activities of H. pedunculosum seed oil were assayed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, lipid peroxidation assay, and antihemolytic assay. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (10 rats/group) including control, CCl4, CCl4+bifendate, and CCl4+H. pedunculosum seed oil (3 different doses) groups. RESULTS: The CCl4-induced liver lesions include hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, calcification, and fibrosis. Moreover, CCl4 damage results in an obvious increase of serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, malondialdehyde, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity. In addition, CCl4 also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). By contrast, H. pedunculosum seed oil administration significantly ameliorated the CCl4-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers, and increased the activities of SOD. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that H. pedunculosum seed oil can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect.

In this work, a hyphenated technique of dual ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with microwave-assisted derivatization followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of phytosterols in functional foods and medicinal herbs. Multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for the tandem mass spectrometry detection. A mass spectrometry sensitive reagent, 4'-carboxy-substituted rosamine, has been used as the derivatization reagent for five phytosterols, and internal standard diosgenin was used for the first time. Parameters for the dual microextraction, microwave-assisted derivatization, and ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were all optimized in detail. Satisfactory linearity, recovery, repeatability, accuracy and precision, absence of matrix effect, extremely low limits of detection (0.005-0.015 ng/mL) and limits of quantification (0.030-0.10 ng/mL) were achieved. The proposed method was compared with previously reported methods. It showed better sensitivity, selectivity, and accuracy. The matrix effect was also significantly reduced. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of five phytosterols in vegetable oil (sunflower oil, olive oil, corn oil, peanut oil), milk and orange juice (soymilk, peanut milk, orange juice), and medicinal herbs (Ginseng, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps, Polygonum multiflorum) for the quality control of functional foods and medicinal herbs.

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and inflammatory markers have been associated with various neuro-psychiatric disorders. However, their role in mild to moderate depression and anxiety patients treated with mindfulness-based group therapy (mindfulness) or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is not known. In this study we analyzed plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and EGF before (baseline) and after treatment (8 weeks) and investigated their role in response to both arms of the treatment. To cover variety of mental symptoms, treatment response was analyzed by four scales, the Montgomery–Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS), Hospital anxiety and depression scale- Depression (HADS-D) and anxiety (HADS-A) and patients health questionnaire-9.EGF levels were significantly decreased after both mindfulness and CBT and were associated with treatment response on all scales independent of the use of tranquilizers and antidepressant treatment. Moreover, baseline EGF levels were significantly associated only with baseline scores of anxiety scale. Levels of inflammatory markers analyzed in this study, were not significantly associated with treatment response on any scale. Our findings suggest that improvement in symptoms of depression and anxiety after both mindfulness and CBT is associated with changes in EGF levels but not with the inflammatory markers.

Two novel organic amide alkaloids, 4-[(<i>E</i>)-<i>p</i>-coumaroylamino]butan-1-ol (<b>1</b>) and 4-[(<i>Z</i>)-<i>p</i>-coumaroylamino]butan-1-ol (<b>2</b>), together with a rare pyridoindole alkaloid, hippophamide (<b>3</b>), were isolated from the seed residue of <i>Hippophae rhamnoides</i> Linn. subsp. <i>sinensis</i> Rousi. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. The results show that compounds <b>1</b> and <b>2</b> are (<i>E</i>/<i>Z</i>)<i>-</i>isomers, compound <b>3</b>, a pyridoindole alkaloid concerted with <i>γ</i>-lactam ring.

A new triterpenoid, namely myricarin C (compound 1), together with three known compounds myricarin A (compound 2) and myricarin B (compound 3), 3α-hydroxy-D-friedoolean-14-en-28-oic acid (compound 4), was isolated from the overground part of Myricaria squamosa. Compound 2 and compound 3 existed in the solution by the form of cis-trans isomers. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. The antioxidant properties of all compounds were calculated based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that myricarin A and myricarin C had general antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 40.90 μg/ml, 42.22 μg/ml, respectively, compared to the control, rutin (5.17 μg/ml). The EC50 values of myricarin B was 195.81 μg/ml. Compound 4 had no antioxidant activities.