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Background: While there is a growing interest in the therapeutic benefits of yoga, minority populations with arthritis tend to be under-represented in the research. Additionally, there is an absence of guidance in the literature regarding the use of multicultural teams and sociocultural health beliefs, when designing yoga studies for a racially diverse population with arthritis. This pilot study examined the feasibility of offering yoga as a self-care modality to an urban, bilingual, minority population with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in the Washington, DC area. Methods: The primary objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of offering an 8-week, bilingual yoga intervention adapted for arthritis to a convenience sample of primarily Hispanic and Black/African-American adults. A racially diverse interdisciplinary research team was assembled to design a study to facilitate recruitment and retention. The second objective identified outcome measures to operationalize potential facilitators and barriers to self-care and self-efficacy. The third objective determined the feasibility of using computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for data collection. Results: Enrolled participants (n = 30) were mostly female (93%), Spanish speaking (69%), and diagnosed with RA (88.5%). Feasibility was evaluated using practicality, acceptability, adaptation, and expansion of an arthritis-adapted yoga intervention, modified for this population. Recruitment (51%) and participation (60%) rates were similar to previous research and clinical experience with the study population. Of those enrolled, 18 started the intervention. For adherence, 12 out of 18 (67%) participants completed the intervention. All (100%), who completed the intervention, continued to practice yoga 3 months after completing the study. Using nonparametric tests, selected outcome measures showed a measurable change post-intervention suggesting appropriate use in future studies. An in-person computerized questionnaire was determined to be a feasible method of data collection. Conclusions: Findings from this pilot study confirm the feasibility of offering yoga to this racially/ethnically diverse population with arthritis. This article provides recruitment/retention rates, outcome measures with error rates, and data collection recommendations for a previously under-represented population. Suggestions include allocating resources for translation and using a multicultural design to facilitate recruitment and retention. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01617421.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the acceptability of yoga research tailored to recruit and retain a minority population (both English and Spanish speaking) with arthritis. Yoga research for arthritis often underrepresents minorities and acceptability for this population has not previously been investigated. DESIGN: Acceptability was evaluated using retention, adherence, journals, and semi-structured exit interviews from twelve participants with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis undergoing an 8-week yoga intervention. Journal quotes were analyzed using content analysis techniques. NVivo software was used to organize transcripts and assemble themes. Two methods of triangulation (data and investigator) were used to overcome potential bias from a single-perspective interpretation. Exit interview comments were content analyzed using a card sort method. The study was designed with a cultural infrastructure including a multicultural research team, translators, and bilingual materials and classes, to facilitate trust and acceptability for primarily Hispanic and Black/African-American adults. SETTING: Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, USA. RESULTS: On average participants attended 10 of 16 classes, with home practice 2-3days a week. All who completed were still practicing yoga three-months later. Qualitative narrative analysis identified major themes related to facilitating factors and barriers for yoga practice, self-efficacy, and support. Participant comments indicated that offering an arthritis-based yoga intervention and using a culturally congruent research design was found to be acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: As yoga research grows, there is a need to understand and promote acceptability for typically under-represented populations. This study attempts to inform the expansion of multicultural research designed to recruit and retain those from diverse backgrounds.