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Meconopsis horridula is one of alpine plants belonging to family Papaveraceae, mainly distributed in Himalaya Range area. M. horridula is a rare alpine flower, and is a kind of traditional Tibetan medicine, which has been included in more than 40 compound formulae, having efficacies of clearing away heat and alleviating pain, activating blood circulation to remove stasis, traditionally used for the treatment of fractures, injuries, and chest and back pains. Modern research shows that the whole plant of M. horridula contains alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenes, and its pharmacological activities including antitumor, antivirus and myocardial protection etc. However, due to various factors, the current research of M.horridula still faces many challenges. This paper summaries herein a progress of MH on its ecological resources, traditional uses, and studies on chemical constituents and pharmacological effects, hopefully to provide a useful reference for the ecological protection and applications.

Nine alkaloids and two phenolic glycosides were isolated from EtOH extract of the whole plants of Corydalis hendersonii by various chromatographic techniques including silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as groenlandicine (1), berberine (2), protopine (3), cryptopine (4), N-trans-feruloyloctopamine(5), 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxyethyl] acrylamide (6), N-cis-p-coumaroyloctopamine (7), N-trans-p-coumaroylnoradrenline (8),N-cis-feruloyloctopamine (9), apocynin (10), and glucoacetosyringone (11) by the spectroscopic data analysis and comparison with those in the literature. Among them, compounds 10 and 11 were isolated from this genus for the first time, and 1, 2, and 5-9 were isolated from the species for the first time. All isolates were tested for their protection for in vitro PC12 cell line and antiplatelet aggregation activity. The results showed that compounds 5 and 7 displayed protective effects at a concentration of 10 μmol·L⁻¹, and compound 2 showed antiplatelet aggregation activity induced by THR, ADP, and AA, and compound 3 exhibted inhibitory effect induced by THR.; Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

A phytochemical investigation on the aerial parts of a Tibetan medicine Meconopsis horridula, by solvent extraction, repeated chromatographies on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative TLC techniques, led to the isolation of 9 compounds. By spectroscopic analysis and comparison of its 1H and 13C-NMR data with those in literatures, their structures were identified as oleracein E(1), N-( trans-p-coumaroyl) tyramine (2), chrysoeriol (3), apigenin (4), hydnocarpin (5), p-coumaric acid glucosyl ester (6), stigmast-5-ene-3beta-ylformate (7), 3beta-hydroxy-7alpha-ethoxy-24beta-ethylcholest-5-ene (8), and beta-sitosterol (9), respectively, among which compounds 6-8 were isolated from the genus for the first time,and 1,3 were isolated from the species for the first time. A MTT method was applied to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of compounds 14 against the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2), and compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicity against HepG2,with its inhibitory rate of 52.2% at 10 micromol x L(-1).;

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Corydalis hendersonii Hemsl. (CH) with heat clearing and detoxifying effects are well described in Tibetan folk medicine. It has been used for centuries in China largely for the treatment of high altitude polycythemia, a pathophysiological condition referred to "plethora" in Tibetan medicine, hypertension, hepatitis, edema, gastritis, and other infectious diseases.AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the cardioprotective effects of Corydalis hendersonii extract in an ICR mouse model of myocardial ischemic injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanol [85% (v/v)] extract of CH whole plant was prepared, and their chemical profile was analyzed with use of HPLC-DAD and IT-TOF-ESI-MS. A mouse model of AMI was established by ligation of the left ventricular dysfunction (LAD) coronary artery. Mice were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12 per group): sham group, model group, CH groups treated with three doses of CH (100, 200, and 400mg/kg, intragastric), and a positive control group (captopril, 16.67mg/kg, intragastric). Heart function was evaluated by measurement of ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) by echocardiography. Serum levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), plasma levels of angiotensin II (AngII), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 in the cardiac tissue homogenate, protein expressions of signal-transduction proteins, p65, IκBα, JAK2, and STAT3 in heart tissues were measured by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Inflammatory cell infiltration and changes in collagen deposition in the myocardial ischemic heart tissues were observed by histopathological examination. Platelet aggregation in vitro was also assessed. RESULTS: CH treatment showed a dose-dependent cardioprotective effect. It significantly reduced left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDs), improved EF and FS as compared to those in the model group; attenuated the increase levels of CK-MB and LDH in serum; reduced expressions of AngII, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß in plasma, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions in the cardiac tissue homogenate; and down-regulated myocardial expressions of p-p65, p-IκBα, p-JAK2, p-STAT3, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in AMI mice. Also, an obvious reduction in inflammatory cell infiltration in the myocardial infarct was found in all CH treated groups. Besides, CH also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by THR, ADP, and AA. CONCLUSION: CH extract exerted a protective effect against myocardial ischemic injury via inhibition of inflammation, myocardial fibrosis, and platelet aggregation. This study demonstrates such protection for the first time and provides a basis for development of CH-based drugs for treatment of ischemic heart disease in clinical settings.

The Meconopsis plants (Chinese: ), belonging to the family Papaveraceae, have been used as traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) for thousands of years. Meconopsis has the effects of clearing heat, reducing swelling, and easing pain, and is mainly prescribed for heat syndromes, hepatitis, pneumonia, and pain in joints. Phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of major isoquinoline alkaloids and flavonoids. Modern pharmacological research has demonstrated its antitumor, hepatoprotective, analgestic, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, antitussive, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, resource availability, in-depth in vivo pharmacological study and qualitative and quantitative analysis are still insufficient and deserve further efforts. This paper provides a comprehensive advance on the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of the genus, in hopes of promoting a better understanding of their medicinal values.

It was estimated that about 428 species of genus Corydalis are distributed all worldwide, with about 298, especially 10 groups and 219 species being uniquely spread in China. The genus Corydalis have been widely employed as folk medicines in China, especially as traditional Tibetan medicines, for treatment of fever, hepatitis, edema, gastritis, cholecystitis, hypertension and other diseases. The phytochemical studies revealed that isoquinoline alkaloids are its major bioactive ingredients. The extensive biological researches suggested its pharmacological activities and clinic applications against cardiovascular diseases and central nervous system, antibacterial activities, analgesic effects, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation and anti-injury for hepatocyte, and so on. As an effort in promoting the research of pharmacodynamic ingredients, this article presents an overview focusing on the distribution, phytochemical and pharmacological results of Corydalis species that have been applied in traditional Tibetan medicinal, hopefully to provide a reference for the new Tibetan medicine development from Corydalis plant resource.