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Biomass partitioning has been explored across various biomes. However, the strategies of allocation in plants still remain contentious. This study investigated allocation patterns of above- and belowground biomass at the community level, using biomass survey from the Tibetan Plateau. We explored above- and belowground biomass by conducting three consecutive sampling campaigns across shrub biomes on the northeast Tibetan Plateau during 2011-2013. We then documented the above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB) and root: shoot ratio (R/S) and the relationships between R/S and environment factors using data from 201 plots surveyed from 67 sites. We further examined relationships between above-ground and below-ground biomass across various shrub types. Our results indicated that the median values of AGB, BGB, and R/S in Tibetan shrub were 1102.55, 874.91 g m-2, and 0.85, respectively. R/S showed significant trend with mean annual precipitation (MAP), while decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT). Reduced major axis analysis indicated that the slope of the log-log relationship between above- and belowground biomass revealed a significant difference from 1.0 over space, supporting the optimal hypothesis. Interestingly, the slopes of the allometric relationship between log AGB and log BGB differed significantly between alpine and desert shrub. Our findings supported the optimal theory of above- and belowground biomass partitioning in Tibetan shrub, while the isometric hypothesis for alpine shrub at the community level.

Though aboveground biomass (AGB) has an important contribution to the global carbon cycle, the information about storage and climatic effects of AGB is scare in Three-River Source Region (TRSR) shrub ecosystems. This study investigated AGB storage and its climatic controls in the TRSR alpine shrub ecosystems using data collected from 23 sites on the Tibetan Plateau from 2011 to 2013. We estimated the AGB storage (both shrub layer biomass and grass layer biomass) in the alpine shrubs as 37.49 Tg, with an average density of 1447.31 g m<sup>-2</sup>. Biomass was primarily accumulated in the shrub layer, which accounted for 92% of AGB, while the grass layer accounted for only 8%. AGB significantly increased with the mean annual temperature (<i>P</i> < 0.05). The effects of the mean annual precipitation on AGB were not significant. These results suggest that temperature, rather than precipitation, has significantly effects on of aboveground vegetation growth in the TRSR alpine shrub ecosystems. The actual and potential increase in AGB density was different due to global warming varies among different regions of the TRSR. We conclude that long-term monitoring of dynamic changes is necessary to improve the accuracy estimations of potential AGB carbon sequestration across the TRSR alpine shrub ecosystems.

The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory action of alantolactone, a gradient of traditional Chinese medicine Inulae Radix (Tu-Mu-Xiang), on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells) were infected with HSV-1 and the protective effects of alantolactone on Vero cells were examined. At concentrations of 10(-6), 10(-7), and 10(-8) g/mL, alantolactone did not have a marked harmful effect on the viability of Vero cells according to an MTT assay. Based on the cytopathic effect (CPE) and MTT assays, alantolactone at these concentrations exhibited antiviral action and protected cells from being damaged by HSV-1. Results indicated that alantolactone had potent anti-HSV-1 action and provided evidence for use of Inulae Radix in the treatment of HSV-1 infection.

Aim: To reinvestigate the chemical constituents of the ethanolic extract of Meconopsis quintuplinervia Regel which is a traditional Tibetan medicine used for treatments of hepatitis, tuberculosis etc..; Methods: The compounds were enriched by column chromatography techniques over silica gel, macro porous resin and Sephadex LH-20 absorbents, and finally purified by reverse phase preparative HPLC methods with isocratic mobile phase systems of methanol-H2O-acetic acid (500:500:1) and acetonitrile-H2O-acetic acid (200:800:1). Structural determination of the pure compounds were based on extensive analyses of modern spectroscopic methods including IR, MS, HRMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra.; Results: Three alkaloids were obtained and their structures were elucidated as norsanguinarine (I), O-methylflavinantine (II) and 6-methoxy-17-methyl-2, 3-[methylenebis (oxy)]-morphin-5-en-7-one (III).; Conclusion: Norsanguinarine (I) was isolated from genus Meconopsis for the first time, and 6-methoxy-17-methyl-2,3-[methylenebis(oxy)]-morphin-5-en-7-one (III) is a new alkaloid named as meconoquintupline.;

This study using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support software(TCMISS) to analyze the prescription rules of Tibetan medicine containing Terminalia chebula in the Encyclopedia of Chinese Medicine-Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Composition Preparation of Modern Research and Clinical Application and Common Interpretation of Tibetan Medicine and so on. TCMISS(V2.5) was used to build a prescription database of Tibetan medicine containing T. chebula.The software statistical statement module, association rules and improved mutual information method and other data mining technologies were adopted to analyze the common herbs, combination rules and core combination of prescriptions containing T. chebula.Total 502 prescriptions containing T. chebula were analyzed and 14 common herbal combinations were summarized, whose ingredients mostly had the functions of clearing heat and detoxicating, promoting blood circulation and stopping pain, warming the middle-jiao and promoting the circulation of Qi. Prescriptions containing T. chebula were commonly used to treat 640 kinds of diseases, there are 22 kinds with high frequency(≥12) in which the representative "Tripa" disease, antiquated febrile symptoms, food poisoning had the highest frequency.T. chebula had different therapeutic effects through different compatibility.The complex composing and medication regularities of Tibetan medicine containing T. chebula have been clarified by TCMISS. That will provide reference for the clinical application of T. chebula and the new development.

To explore the medication regularity of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases, analyze the potential drug targets and interactions of the prescriptions, and reveal the mechanism of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases. The prescriptions in Tibetan medicine for treatment of spleen and stomach diseases were collected, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (TCMISS) was used to analyze the association rules between the herbs and discover the core herbs and new prescriptions. The integrated pharmacology platform V1.0 software was used to construct "herb-compound-target" network and investigate the interactions between various herbs and related pathways of Tibetan medicine Wuwei Shiliu powder in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases. Among the 216 prescriptions of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases, pomegranate seed was used at a highest frequency (118 times), followed by white cardamom (107 times) and comatose (107 times). 12 new prescriptions were evolved by using the association rules (support>=34%, confidence>=0.85). 5 242 related drug targets and 20 related pathways were obtained from classic formula Wuwei Shiliu Powder (FDR<0.01). It was proposed that Tibetan medicine treatment for spleen and stomach diseases was mainly based on proliferation of "stomach fire" and the main drugs were for regulating Qi-flowing for strengthening spleen. The mechanism may be associated with regulation of digestive juice secretion, proton pump, mitochondria, regulation of intestinal digestion and immunity, the body's immunity to microorganisms function and other multiple targets and pathways to achieve the joint intervention.

When some climate scientists began saying we’d entered a new epoch, they meant to draw attention to human effects on climate. Now, to their dismay, it’s become a tech call to arms for more disruption.

Our previous study isolated an anti-fatigue polysaccharide (HRWP) from the Hippophae rhamnoides berry. In this study, using ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography in turn, a water-soluble homogenous polysaccharide HRWP-A was isolated from HRWP. Structural analysis determined that HRWP-A was a polysaccharide with repeating units of (1→4)-β-d-galactopyranosyluronic residues, of which 85.16% were esterified with methyl groups. An antitumor activity assay showed that HRWP-A could significantly inhibit the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) growth in tumor-bearing mice. Further experiments suggested that the antitumor effect of HRWP-A might be mediated through immunostimulating activity, as it enhances the lymphocyte proliferation, augments the macrophage activities, as well as promoting NK cell activity and CTL cytotoxicity in tumor-bearing mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a natural antitumor high-methoxyl homogalacturonan pectin from the H. rhamnoides berry-a compound that acts as a potential immunostimulant and anticancer adjuvant.

Dihuang powder (DHP) has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diarrhea in some regions of China. But up to now, the anti-diarrheal activity of DHP haven't been performed with modern pharmacological technology. This study aims to investigate the quality control, the potential toxicity and anti-diarrheal activity of Dihuang powder in mice. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were used to detect five active compounds in DHP for quality control, and the acute toxicity and sub-acute toxicity for 28-day oral administration of DHP were then evaluated. The anti-diarrheal activity was investigated using mouse model. Results showed that the levels of quercetin and berberine in DHP were 0.054 and 0.632 mg/g, respectively, and atractylodin, matrine, and patehouli aleohal were also detected in DHP. At the given doses, DHP was safe in terms of acute and sub-acute toxicity. Meanwhile, DHP exhibited strong anti-diarrheal effects as well as decreased gastrointestinal motility and the secretions induced by Sennae and castor oil in a dose-dependent manner. It could decrease the content of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the small intestine, and improve the histopathological changes of small intestine and large intestine induced by Sennae. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo also were presented. Based on all of the results, we thought that DHP has anti-diarrheal activity, and could be used to treat diarrhea as well as alleviate the pain and inflammation induced by diarrhea. This study provides a theoretical basis for the clinical use of DHP and may assist in the development of new drugs for the treatment of diarrhea. The mechanism of the anti-diarrheal activity should be investigated in the future.

Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Helianthus tuberosus L.) has been researched extensively due to its wide range of uses, but there are limited studies on its flowers. In this study, we report the first detailed phytochemical study on JA flowers, which yielded 21 compounds. Compound 4 was identified as a major water-soluble yellow pigment of JA flowers. In addition, the methanol extract of JA flowers and the isolates were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Among the tested compounds, compound 13 showed the strongest ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity with SC50 value of 2.30 ± 0.13 μg/mL, and compound 6 showed most potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with inhibition rate of 60.0% ± 10.3% at a concentration of 250 μg/mL. Results showed that methanol extract of JA flowers exhibited antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities which could be attributed to its phenolic ingredients including chlorogenic acid derivatives, flavonoids and phenols.

<br>Display Omitted<br>⿢ Two new phenolic acids (<b>1</b>⿿<b>2</b>) were isolated from the aerial parts of <b>Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus</b>. ⿢ Five knownphenolic acids (<b>3</b>⿿<b>7</b>) were also obtained from the title plant. ⿢ <b>1</b>⿿<b>7</b> were evaluated for their anti-oxidant activity. ⿢ <b>1</b>⿿<b>7</b> showed anti-oxidant activity with IC50 values ranging from 7.65 to 22.44 μg/mL.<br>Two new phenolic acids 2-hydroxy-5-[(6⿲-<b>O</b>-(<b>E</b>)-caffeoyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-oxybenzoic acid (<b>1</b>) and 2-hydroxy-5-[(3⿲-<b>O</b>-(<b>E</b>)-caffeoyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-oxybenzoic acid (<b>2</b>) were isolated from the aerial parts of <b>Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus</b>, together with five known ones (<b>3</b>-<b>7</b>). Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies and HRESIMS investigations. The anti-oxidant activity of the isolates was evaluated through ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. The results showed that all of them exhibited anti-oxidant activity, and compound <b>7</b> was the most active compound with an IC50 value of 7.65 μg/mL.

Air pollution is a serious global health problem nowadays. So, it is an emergency to pay sufficient attention to treat and prevent the diseases caused by air pollution, especially respiratory disease and lung damage. Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl. is an edible lichen that has been used in medicinal diets to treat respiratory and other diseases for over 500 years. In this study, a water-soluble polysaccharide, CRWP-P, was obtained from C. rangiferina by hot-water extraction, freeze-thawing separation, and Fehling reagent purification. Structural analysis showed that CRWP-P is a linear α-(1 → 3),(1 → 4)-d-glucan without branches. Its Mw was determined to be 1.05 × 105 Da. Its (1,3)-α-d-glucopyranosyl: (1,4)-α-d-glucopyranosyl ratio is approximately 1:2. Antioxidant activity assay showed that C. rangiferina polysaccharides, especially CRWP-P, had appreciable DPPH radical-scavenging activity and reducing power. Notably, they could effectively decrease cell breakdown and ROS generation, inhibit lipid peroxidation, increase key antioxidase activity, and promote glutathione redox cycling in Pb2+-oxidative injured A549 alveolar epithelium cells. Overall, the results of this study indicated that C. rangiferina polysaccharides, especially CRWP-P, have the potential to be natural antioxidants for the treatment of lung oxidative damage induced by lead of air pollutants.

The young leaves and shoots of Sibiraea laevigata, known as "Liucha", are used as tea by Tibetans to improve digestion after meals. Long-term consumption of "Liucha" will cause weight loss. In present work, we reported on the isolation and NMR and chemical analysis-based elucidation of seven new sorbitol O-caffeic acid ester derivatives named sorbitol esters A-G (1-7) and eighteen known phenolic compounds from S. laevigata. All of the isolates were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Among them sorbitol ester A (1), sorbitol ester D (4), sorbitol ester F (6), sorbitol ester G (7), isoferulic acid (15), methyl caffeate (18), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid (19), and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-(6″-E-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (25) showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the clinical drug acarbose.

As important secondary plant metabolites, naphthoquinones exhibit a wide range of biological activities. However, their potential as sustainable alternatives to synthetic acaricides has not been studied. This study for the first time investigates the acaricidal activity of naphthoquinones against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro. Furthermore, the in vivo activity, the skin irritation effects, the cytotoxicity and the inhibitory activities against mite acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) of the two compounds that displayed the best insecticidal activity in vitro were evaluated. Among fourteen naphthoquinones and their analogs, juglone and plumbagin were observed to possess the strongest acaricidal activities against P. cuniculi with LC50 values of 20.53 ppm and 17.96 ppm, respectively, at 24 h. After three treatments, these two chemicals completely cured naturally infested rabbits in vivo within 15 days, and no skin irritation was found in any of the treated rabbits. Compared to plumbagin, juglone presented no or weak cytotoxicity against HL-7702 cells. Moreover, these two chemicals significantly inhibited AChE and GST activity. These results indicate that juglone has promising toxicity against P. cuniculi, is safe for both humans and animals at certain doses, and could be used as a potential alternative bio-acaricide for controlling the development of psoroptic mange in agricultural applications.

Abstract: In the present paper, the effect of the aqueous extract from aerial parts of Artemisia vestita (AV-ext), a traditional Tibetan medicine, on ear contact sensitivity was examined. AV-ext significantly reduced the ear swelling when administered during the induction phase of picryl-chloride (PCl)-induced ear contact sensitivity in mice. The extract also showed a dose-dependent inhibition on lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 production in Con A-activated spleen cells. The proliferation inhibition was confirmed in the mixed lymphocytes reaction. Furthermore, the adhesion of the isolated spleen cells from PCl-sensitized mice to type IV collagen was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by AV-ext. Such decrease was also seen in AV-ext-treated Jurkat T cells and the T cells purified from above spleen cells. The purified spleen T cells from PCl-sensitized mice produced more matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) than naive T cells, and AV-ext remarkably reduced MMP-9 production both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that AV-ext may alleviate contact sensitivity through blocking the activation of T lymphocytes and decreasing their localization to the inflammatory sites via down-regulating the potential of cell adhesion and metalloproteinase production.

How can we connect our personal spiritual journeys with the larger course of our shared human experience? How do we compassionately and wisely navigate belonging and exclusion in our own hearts? And how can we embrace diverse identities and experiences within our spiritual communities, building sanghas that make good on the promise of liberation for everyone?If you aren’t sure how to start this work, Awakening Together is for you. If you’ve begun but aren’t sure what the next steps are, this book is for you. If you’re already engaged in this work, this book will remind you none of us do this work alone. Whether you find yourself at the center or at the margins of your community, whether you’re a community member or a community leader, this book is for you.

In plants with infrequent pollinator services, the benefits of reproductive assurance could be eroded by severe ovule discounting and inbreeding depression (ID). However, it remains unclear how selfing evolves under complete pollinator failure and strong ID. We examined the mating system and ID under netting and robbing conditions in <i>Comastoma pulmonarium</i> (Turcz.) Toyok. (Gentianaceae), an alpine annual experiencing a high ratio of nectar robbery on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. <i>Comastoma pulmonarium</i> produced seeds via selfing at the study site. No pollinator was observed and thus the nectar was consumed exclusively by robbers. Inbreeding depression occurred in the life stages of seed mass and germination, and the cumulative ID was much higher than 0.5 under netting and robbing conditions. Overall, in comparison with netting, the magnitude of ID under robbing conditions tended to decrease. Our results suggested that selfing could assure reproduction for plants under complete pollinator failure and strong ID, supporting the “better than nothing” role of selfing and providing one of the few cases of the evolution of selfing under strong ID.

Biofeedback is a scientifically based approach, which relies on an instrumentation to measure the moment-to-moment physiological activity relevant to the problems being treated. This is based on the idea that the autonomic nervous system can come under the voluntary control through the operant conditioning. Biofeedback is a process that uses instruments to detect, measure, and amplify internal physiological responses to provide the individual with a feedback of those responses. The detection of the physiological signal with an appropriate transducer is the first step. The detected signal is then amplified and converted into a form that is accessible to the external senses. Finally, the signal is fed back to the person who then uses the information in the attempts to gain voluntary control over the targeted physiological event.For several decades, only the voluntary musculoskeletal system mediated by the central nervous system was considered responsive to the instrumental learning or the operant conditioning. However, researches had demonstrated that autonomic responses were also modifiable and began to investigate the specificity and the pattern of learned visceral responses and cognitive mediating strategies for producing visceral changes. Moreover, biofeedback also may be used in modifying a normally voluntary function when the person has lost the voluntary control because of a disease or an injury. In spite of limited understanding regarding psychophysiological mechanisms, biofeedback has been widely used in the treatment of many diseases, including constipation, incontinence, urinary dysfunction, migraine, and stress.

To follow-up on our prior Part I review, this Part II review summarizes and provides updated literature on novel quinoline and quinazoline alkaloids isolated during the period of 2009-2016, together with the biological activity and the mechanisms of action of these classes of natural products. Over 200 molecules with a broad range of biological activities, including antitumor, antiparasitic and insecticidal, antibacterial and antifungal, cardioprotective, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-asthma, antitussive, and other activities, are discussed. This survey should provide new clues or possibilities for the discovery of new and better drugs from the original naturally occurring quinoline and quinazoline alkaloids.

The biosynthesis of nanoparticles in bioreactors using microbial, plant, or animal cells is at the forefront of nanotechnology. We demonstrated for the first time that luminescent, water-soluble ZnO nanocrystals (bio-ZnO NCs) can be spontaneously biosynthesized in the mammalian blood circulation, not in cells, when animals were fed with Zn(CH3COO)2 aqueous solution. Serum albumin, rather than metallothioneins or glutathione, proved to play the pivotal role in biosynthesis. The bio-ZnO NCs were gradually taken up in the liver and degraded and excreted in the urine. Thus, we propose that in mammals such as rodents, bovinae, and humans, excess metal ions absorbed into the cardiovascular system via the intestine can be transformed into nanoparticles by binding to serum albumin, forming a "provisional metal-pool", to reduce the toxicity of free metal ions at high concentration and regulate metal homeostasis in the body. Furthermore, the bio-ZnO NCs, which showed favorable biocompatibility, were functionalized with the anticancer drug daunorubicin and effectively achieved controlled drug release mediated by intracellular glutathione in tumor xenograft mice.

An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving 70 junior high schools and 7,495 students in rural China. After eight months, the SEL program reduces dropout by 1.6 percentage points and decreases learning anxiety by 2.3 percentage points. Effects are no longer statistically different from zero after 15 months, perhaps due to decreasing student interest in the program. However, we do find that the program reduces dropout among students at high risk of dropping out (older students and students with friends who have already dropped out), both after eight and 15 months of exposure to the SEL program.

The Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. fruit is an indigenous berry of the shrub belonging to the Zygophyllaceae family which grows at an altitude of over 3000 m in the Tibetan Plateau, and has been used as a native medicinal food for treating weakness of the spleen, stomach syndrome, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, dizziness, etc. for thousands of years. Nowadays, N. tangutorum industrial juice by-products generated from health food production can be a potential low cost source of some unique bioactive ingredients. In a prior study, we established a simultaneous microwave/ultrasonic assisted enzymatic extraction method for extracting antioxidant ingredients from the industrial by-products of N. tangutorum juice. In this study, these ingredients were selectively fractionated by cation-exchange resin chromatography to obtain an anthocyanin fraction namely NJBAE. NJBAE was found to be composed of 16 anthocyanins derived from six anthocyanidins by HPLC-ESI-MS, and has an appreciable cardioprotective effect on doxorubicin-induced injured H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The cardioprotective mechanism research showed that NJBAE could directly scavenge ROS, restrict further generation of ROS, promote the activity of key antioxidase, enhance glutathione redox cycling, then affect the apoptotic signaling changes in a positive way, and finally mediate caspase-dependent cell death pathways. Therefore, NJBAE has great potential to be used for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease in the food, pharmaceutical and other emerging industries.

The Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. fruit is an indigenous berry of the shrub belonging to the Zygophyllaceae family which grows at an altitude of over 3000 m in the Tibetan Plateau, and has been used as a native medicinal food for treating weakness of the spleen, stomach syndrome, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, dizziness, etc. for thousands of years. Nowadays, N. tangutorum industrial juice by-products generated from health food production can be a potential low cost source of some unique bioactive ingredients. In a prior study, we established a simultaneous microwave/ultrasonic assisted enzymatic extraction method for extracting antioxidant ingredients from the industrial by-products of N. tangutorum juice. In this study, these ingredients were selectively fractionated by cation-exchange resin chromatography to obtain an anthocyanin fraction namely NJBAE. NJBAE was found to be composed of 16 anthocyanins derived from six anthocyanidins by HPLC-ESI-MS, and has an appreciable cardioprotective effect on doxorubicin-induced injured H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The cardioprotective mechanism research showed that NJBAE could directly scavenge ROS, restrict further generation of ROS, promote the activity of key antioxidase, enhance glutathione redox cycling, then affect the apoptotic signaling changes in a positive way, and finally mediate caspase-dependent cell death pathways. Therefore, NJBAE has great potential to be used for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease in the food, pharmaceutical and other emerging industries.

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