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Objective: Prehypertension is a new category designated by the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure ( JNC7) in 2003. Managing prehypertension with nonpharmacological intervention is possibly beneﬁcial to the prevention of hypertension. In this study, we observed the effect of slow abdominal breathing combined with electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training on blood pressure (BP) in prehypertensives and assessed the changes of heart rate variability (HRV) in order to ﬁnd an optional intervention to prevent hypertension and acquire some experimental data to clarify the underlying neural mechanism.Methods: Twenty-two (22) postmenopausal women with prehypertension were randomly assigned to either the experiment group or the control group. The experiment group performed 10 sessions of slow abdominal breathing (six cycles/min) combined with frontal electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training and daily home practice, while the control group only performed slow abdominal breathing and daily home practice. BP and HRV (including R–R interval and standard deviation of the normal–normal intervals [SDNN]) were measured. Results: Participants with prehypertension could lower their systolic blood pressure (SBP) 8.4 mm Hg ( p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 3.9 mm Hg ( p < 0.05) using slow abdominal breathing combined with EMG biofeedback. The slow abdominal breathing also signiﬁcantly decreased the SBP 4.3 mm Hg ( p < 0.05), while it had no effect on the DBP ( p > 0.05). Repeated-measures analyses showed that the biofeedback group þ abdominal respiratory group (ABþBF) training was more effective in lowering the BP than the slow breathing ( p < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the R–R interval increased signiﬁcantly during the training in the ABþBF group ( p < 0.05). The SDNN increased remarkably in both groups during the training ( p < 0.05). Conclusions: Slow abdominal breathing combined with EMG biofeedback is an effective intervention to manage prehypertension. The possible mechanism is that slow abdominal breathing combined with EMG biofeedback could reduce sympathetic activity and meanwhile could enhance vagal activity.
Objective: The study aims to investigate the effectiveness of yoga on negative emotions in breast cancer patients. Methods: Pubmed, Elsevier, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP databases were screened throughout October 2015. Randomized control trials (RCTs) examining the effects of yoga versus a non-exercise or waitlist control group on negative moods in breast cancer patients were included. The methodological quality of included RCTs was evaluated by using the Cochrane Handbook 5.1, and data were analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3. Results: A total of 21 RCTs with 1762 participants were included. We found evidence for immediate effects on anxiety (p < 0.00001), depression (p < 0.00001), distress (p < 0.00001), perceived stress (p < 0.00001), and emotional well-being (p = 0.0002). Sustained effects (3 months) were only found in depression (p = 0.004) but not anxiety (p = 0.43), and other outcomes were not synthesized because of heterogeneity and the limited number of studies. Conclusion: Yoga is valuable in improving negative moods in patients with breast cancer. We also concluded five key mechanisms of yoga therapy in improving negative moods. Further well-designed RCTs with large sample size and long-term follow-up are needed. Copyright (C) 2016, Chinese Nursing Association. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.