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To explore the medication regularity of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases, analyze the potential drug targets and interactions of the prescriptions, and reveal the mechanism of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases. The prescriptions in Tibetan medicine for treatment of spleen and stomach diseases were collected, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (TCMISS) was used to analyze the association rules between the herbs and discover the core herbs and new prescriptions. The integrated pharmacology platform V1.0 software was used to construct "herb-compound-target" network and investigate the interactions between various herbs and related pathways of Tibetan medicine Wuwei Shiliu powder in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases. Among the 216 prescriptions of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases, pomegranate seed was used at a highest frequency (118 times), followed by white cardamom (107 times) and comatose (107 times). 12 new prescriptions were evolved by using the association rules (support>=34%, confidence>=0.85). 5 242 related drug targets and 20 related pathways were obtained from classic formula Wuwei Shiliu Powder (FDR<0.01). It was proposed that Tibetan medicine treatment for spleen and stomach diseases was mainly based on proliferation of "stomach fire" and the main drugs were for regulating Qi-flowing for strengthening spleen. The mechanism may be associated with regulation of digestive juice secretion, proton pump, mitochondria, regulation of intestinal digestion and immunity, the body's immunity to microorganisms function and other multiple targets and pathways to achieve the joint intervention.

This study established an HPLC fingerprint of Tibetan medicine Shaji Gao from different habitats and lay a foundation for Shaji Gao varieties identification and preparation process. The chromatographic condition was as follow: Agilent zorbax SB-C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) eluted with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 0.4% phosphoric acid water in gradient mode. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was set at 360 nm. The fingerprints of 15 batches Shaji Gao were carried out by similarity comparation, 7 chromatographic peaks were extracted as the common peaks of fingerprint, 3 peaks were identified, which were quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The similarity degrees of 14 batches of samples were above 0.9 and 1 batch of samples was below 0.9. This is the first established fingerprint of Shaji Gao by using HPLC. This method has good precision, stability and repeatability that it could provide basis for quality control and evaluation of Shaji Gao.

Innovative development extends the vitality of ethnomedicines. Developing ethnomedicines is not only beneficial to the public but also to the related industry and transforms economic growth, driving local social and economic development further. Its economic benefit can be used to optimize and promote the hardware and software of the platform, as well as support the sustainable development of ethnomedicines. Apart from research and discussion on the innovative development of ethnomedicines on the basis of theory and regulations, this series of articles also summarizes cases that are conducive to the overall understanding of the necessity and feasibility of the innovative development. In terms of industrial development, large enterprises and products, such as Yunnan Baiyao, Guizhou Miao ethnomedicines, Cheezheng Tibetan Medicine, products developed from Dengzhanhua (Erigeron breviscapus), the Gold series of Yi ethnomedicines, and products developed from Sanqi (Panax notoginseng), in China are introduced and summarized, focusing on resource superiority, sustainable innovation, standard research and development, and production, as well as intellectual property protection.

Background: The stems of Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr commonly named "Kuan-Jin-Teng" in Chinese, have been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis as a Tibetan medicine.Purpose: The effects of the EtOAc fraction of ethanolic extract from the stems of T. sinensis (KJT) on the pro-inflammatory cytokines and MAPK pathway were studied in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model.Study Design: Anti-arthritic activity of KJT was investigated in CIA model.Methods: The chemical constituents of KJT were analyzed by LC-MS and HPLC. The CIA model was established with injecting the bovine CII emulsified in Freund's adjuvant in Wistar rats. Several doses of KJT (50.0, 100.0 and 200.0 mg/kg) were administrated via oral gavage to CIA rats daily for 4 weeks. The anti-arthritic activity of KJT was investigated by clinical arthritis scoring, paw swelling inspection and hyperalgesia measurement, as well as radiological and histological analysis in CIA rats. The impacts of KJT on the activation of MAPK pathway, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17) in ankle joints, serum, and spleen in CIA rats were examined by western blot, immunohistochemical staining, ELISA, and quantitative real-time PCR respectively. Lastly, the effects of KJT on production of the nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the regulation of the phosphorylation of p38 and Erk were detected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells.Results: KJT significantly alleviated the paw swelling, hyperalgesia and arthritic severity, and reduced the synovial tissue proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration in the CIA rats. Moreover, KJT suppressed the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17 in ankle joints, serum, and spleen and reversed the up-regulation of the phosphorylation of p38 and Erk in CIA rats. KJT was also demonstrated to inhibit the production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), and phosphorylation of p38 and Erk in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.Conclusion: These results suggest the mechanisms of KJT performing its anti-arthritis effect may be attributed to inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and down-regulating the MAPK signaling pathway.