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Four novel lactams, colletotrilactam A-D (1-4), along with six known compounds (5-10) were isolated from the culture broth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides GT-7, a fungal endophyte of Uncaria rhynchophylla. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by comprehensive NMR spectroscopy. Isolates were tested for monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory activity and compound 9 showed potent MAO inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 8.93±0.34μg/mL, when the IC50 value of iproniazid as a standard was 1.80±0.5μg/mL.

In the present study, nine compounds (1-9) were isolated from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (an endophytic fungus from Uncaria rhynchophylla) which was cultured in wheat bran medium. Their structures were elucidated as 4-Epi-14-hydroxy-10, 23-dihydro-24, 25-dehydroaflavinine (1), 10, 23-Dihydro-24,25 -dehydro-21-oxoaflavinine (2), Ergosterol (3), Ergosterol peroxide (4), Mellein (5), 4, 5-dihydroblumenol A (6), Colletotrichine A (7), Cyclo(L-leucyl-L-leucyl) (8), and Brevianamide F (9) based on NMR spectral data, as well as comparing with previous literature data. This is the first report about the isolation of compounds 1-2, 6, and 8-9 from Colletotrichum genus. All compounds were tested for their phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kα) inhibitory activity. Compounds 8 and 9 showed potent PI3K α inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 38.1 and 4.8 µM, respectively, while the other compounds showed very weak activity at a concentration of 20 µg/mL.

Two new compounds, deacetylisowortmins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Talaromyces wortmannii LGT-4. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectra, as well as comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. Monoamine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of 1 and 2 were also evaluated.

Two new compounds Talaromycin A (1) and Talaromycin B (2) were isolated from a liquid culture of Talaromyces aurantiacus. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra and comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. Additional known compounds (3-6) were also isolated. These compounds were tested for monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase and PI3K inhibitory activity, but showed only weak activity.