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Abstract This presented study describes a method based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) using N-(2-iodoacetyl)-1-pyrenemethylamine (NIPA) as a novel fluorescence labeling reagent for the determination of thyreostats in bovine milk. Five thyreostats, belonging to the group of imidazole and thiouracil, were investigated in this work: tapazole (TAP), thiouracil (TU), methylthiouracil (MTU), propylthiouracil (PTU) and phenylthiouracial (PhTU). Thyreostats were specifically purified by a silver ion solid phase extraction (Ag-SPE) cartridge and then labeled using NIPA. The labeled derivatives showed excellent fluorescence property with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 330 nm and 375 nm, respectively. The labeled derivatives were separated on a reversed-phase Eclipse SB-C18 column within 12 min. Excellent linearity (R2 > 0.995) of all thyreostats was achieved with the limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) in the low micrograms per liter range of 0.21–0.30 μg/L and 0.70–1.00 μg/L, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries in the range of 93.5–98.0% were obtained for all thyreostats. The developed method has been successfully applied to analyze thyreostats in bovine milk with good applicability. Thirty bovine milk samples have been investigated, and varying levels of thiouracil were detected in thirteen of these samples. The highest level in the raw milk reached a value of 4.5 μg/L. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to report the presence of naturally occurring thiouracil in milk by HPLC-FLD analysis. Highlights • A pre-column derivatization HPLC-FLD method was developed for the determination of thyreostats in milk samples. • LOD was in the low micrograms per liter range of 0.21–0.30 μg·L−1. • The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of thyreostats in milk sample. • This study is the first to report the presence of naturally occurring thiouracil in milk by HPLC-FLD analysis.
A pair of stable isotope labeling (SIL) reagents, <b>N</b>-(4-(carbazole-9-yl)-phenyl)-<b>N</b>-maleimide (NCPM-d0) and its heavy analogue NCPM-d2, were used for labeling thiol-containing drugs. On basis of SIL, a global isotope internal standard quantitative method for the detection of five thiol-containing drugs by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The NCPM-d0 and NCPM-d2 can easily label thiol-containing drugs under mild conditions within 10 min at 40 °C. The NCPM-d0 and NCPM-d2 labeled thiol-containing drugs can generate two characteristic product ions (<b>m</b>/<b>z</b> at 372.5 and 374.5) under collision induced dissociation, respectively, which is used to establish the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) based detection. The NCPM labeling combined with MRM analysis not only allowed trace detection of thiol-containing drugs due to the extremely high sensitivity, but also efficiently corrected the matrix effects during HPLC-MS/MS and the instrument fluctuation in the MS/MS signal intensity. The detection sensitivities of thiol-containing drugs improved by 14.5-650.5-fold due to NCPM-labeling, while the matrix and ion suppression effects were markedly minimized by the SIL strategy. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were in the range 10.0-15.0 ng·mL−1 and 31.0-50.0 ng·mL−1, respectively. The proposed method was used for the simultaneous determination of five thiol-containing drugs in plasma samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 95.0-97.5%.<br>• A stable isotope labeling strategy for analyzing thiol-containing drugs has been developed. • A pair of SIL reagents NCPM-d0 and NCPM-d2 were used to label thiol-containing drugs. • The detection sensitivities of thiol-containing drugs improved by 14.5-650.5-fold. • The proposed method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of captopril.
In this study, a simple analytical method for the determination of γ-aminobutyric acid, gabapentin, and baclofen by using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was developed. An amidogen-reactive fluorescence labeling reagent, 4-(carbazole-9-yl)-benzyl chloroformate was first used to sensitively label these analytes. The completed labeling of these analytes can be finished rapidly only within 5 min at the room temperature (25°C) to form 4-(carbazole-9-yl)-benzyl chloroformate labeled fluorescence derivatives. These labeled derivatives expressed strong fluorescence property with the maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 280 and 380 nm, respectively. The labeled derivatives were analyzed using a reversed-phase Eclipse SB-C18 column within 10 min with satisfactory shapes. Excellent linearity (R² > 0.995) for all analytes was achieved with the limits of detection and the limits of quantitation in the range of 0.25−0.35 and 0.70−1.10 μg/L, respectively. The proposed method was used for the simultaneous determination of γ-aminobutyric acid and its analogs in human serum with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 94.5-97.5%.
The goal of the presented work is to develop a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method for the determination of four nitrofurans (NFs) metabolites compounds (semicarbazide (SEM), 1-aminohydantoin (AH), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) and 3-amino-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ)) in foodstuffs. For this goal, we synthesized a novel fluorescence labeling reagent, 4-(carbazole-9-yl)-benzyl chloroformate (CBBC) to label NFs metabolites compounds. NFs metabolites compounds can be labeled rapidly only within 5 min at the room temperature (25 °C). The labeled derivatives showed excellent fluorescence property with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 375 nm and 410 nm, respectively. The labeled derivatives were analyzed on a reversed-phase Eclipse XDB-C18 column within 10 min. Excellent linearity (R2 > 0.995) of all NFs metabolites compounds was achieved with the limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantitations (LOQs) in the low micrograms per kilogram range of 0.20-0.30 μg·kg−1 and 0.70-1.00 μg·kg−1, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries in the range of 92.5-98.0% were obtained for all NFs metabolites compounds. Using the proposed HPLC-FLD method, we successfully determined four NFs metabolites compounds in different foodstuffs. As promising, this highly sensitive and reliable method would also be extended for the quantitation of NFs metabolites compounds in other samples.<br><br>Display Omitted<br>• A novel fluorescence labeling reagent CBBC was synthesized to label nitrofurans (NFs) metabolites compounds. • A pre-column derivatization HPLC-FLD method was developed for the determination of NFs metabolites compounds in foodstuffs. • LODs were in the low micrograms per kilogram range of 0.2-0.3 μg·kg-1.
A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence analysis in combination with in situ degradation-derivatization (ISD-D) technique was developed for simultaneous determination of seven organophosphorus thioester pesticides (OPTPs) in tea. The ISD-D technique was based on degradation of OPTPs by a nucleophilic substitution reaction between phenylbutane-1,2,3-trione-2-oxime and OPTPs, which can give thiol degradation products (DPs). The thiol DPs obtained were derivatized with the novel derivatization reagent N-(4-(carbazole-9-yl)-phenyl)-N-maleimide (NCPM) in a syringe. Attractively, NCPM itself did not fluoresce, whereas the derivatives of the thiol DPs fluoresced intensely, with excitation and emission maxima at 290 nm and 368 nm, respectively, which extraordinary reduced the background interference and increased the detection sensitivity for thiol DPs. Excellent linearity (R2 > 0.995) for all OPTPs was achieved, with limits of detection and limits of quantitation ranging from 0.23 to 0.45 μg/kg and from 0.75 to 1.43 μg/kg, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 90.5% to 96.0% were obtained for all OPTPs. The ISD-D technique provided a novel and sensitive strategy for quantitation of trace amounts of OPTPs in real samples. Graphical abstract ᅟ.