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<br>Display Omitted<br>• Coupling reaction of haloquinolines with sulfonyl chlorides in water. • Excellent regioselectivity and scale-up synthesis. • Base-, extra activator- and organic solvent-free conditions. • In situ generated zinc bis-sulphinate as sulfone reagent and activator.<br>A simple and efficient method has been developed for construction of sulfonylated quinolines via coupling of haloquinolines and sulfonyl chlorides in water. The present methodology provides an attractive approach to various sulfonylated quinolines in moderate to good yields with favorable functional group tolerance, which has the advantages of operation simplicity, readily available starting materials, excellent regioselectivity, scale-up synthesis, and organic solvent-free conditions.
<br>Display Omitted<br>• Response surface methodology was applied to optimize supercritical fluid extraction conditions of alantolactone and isoalantolactone. • The optimized extraction conditions were pressure 20 MPa, extraction temperature 50 °C, carbon dioxide flow rate of 17 × 10−5 kg/s and extraction time of 40 min. • Freezing purification greatly improve the content of the target compounds by 30.7 wt.%.<br><b>Inula racemose</b> Hook.f. (<b>I</b>. <b>racemosa</b>) is a traditional herbal medicine with strong anti-fungal and anti-inflammation activity while alantolactone (AL) and isoalantolactone (IAL) are the major active compounds of this plant. The aim of this paper was obtaining AL and IAL from the radix of <b>I</b>. <b>racemosa</b> by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) which was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Our results showed that, the optimal conditions for maximum extraction efficiency were as follows: pressure 20 MPa, extraction temperature 50 °C, carbon dioxide (CO2) flow rate of 17.0 × 10−5 kg/s and extraction time of 40 min. Subsequently, an efficient freezing method was developed for purification of AL and IAL in the crude extract obtained from SFE. After purification by freezing, the total content of the target compounds was greatly improved by 30.7%. The results demonstrate that SFE coupled with freezing would be a powerful technique for extraction and purification of AL and IAL from the radix of <b>I</b>. <b>racemosa</b>.
Traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM) has been valuable for the identification of new therapeutic leads. Nevertheless, reports about the chemical constituents of TTM are meager owing to the lack of suitable purification techniques. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (2D RP/HILIC) technique guided by on-line HPLC-DPPH has been established for the isolation of pure antioxidants from the extract of Dracocephalum heterophyllum . According to the chromatographic recognition outcome of the HPLC-DPPH system, the first-dimensional (1D) separation on the Megress C18 preparative column yielded 6 antioxidative fractions (61.4% recovery) from the ethyl acetate fraction (6.1 g). In the second-dimensional (2D) separation, a HILIC XAmide preparative column was employed. In total, 8 antioxidants were isolated from D. heterophyllum with a purity of >95%, which indicated the efficiency of the developed method to prepare antioxidative compounds with high purity from plant extracts. In addition, this method was highly efficient for the preparation of structural analogues of the antioxidative polyphenols and could be applied for the purification of structural analogues from other resources. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
The regulation of postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels is an effective therapeutic method to treat diabetes and prevent diabetes-related complications. Resveratroloside is a monoglucosylated form of stilbene that is present in red wine, grapes, and several traditional medicinal plants. In our study, the effect of resveratroloside on reducing PBG was studied in vitro and in vivo. In comparison to the starch treatment alone, the oral administration of resveratroloside-starch complexes significantly inhibited the PBG increase in a dose-dependent pattern in normal and diabetic mice. The PBG level treated with resveratrol (30 mg/kg) was not lower than that of resveratroloside. Further analyses demonstrated that resveratroloside strongly and effectively inhibited α-glucosidase, with an 50% inhibitory concentration value of 22.9 ± 0.17 μM, and its inhibition was significantly stronger than those of acarbose and resveratrol (264 ± 3.27 and 108 ± 2.13 μM). Moreover, a competitive inhibition mechanism of resveratroloside on α-glucosidase was determined by enzyme kinetic assays and molecular docking experiments. The molecular docking of resveratroloside with α-glucosidase demostrated the competitive inhibitory effect of resveratroloside, which occupies the catalytic site and forms strong hydrogen bonds with the residues of α-glucosidase. Resveratrol was also determined to be a competitive inhibition mechanism on α-glucosidase by enzyme kinetic assays and molecular docking experiments. This study suggested that resveratroloside had the ability to regulate PBG levels and can be considered a potential agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Five phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), forsythoside B, verbascoside, alyssonoside, isoverbascoside, and leucosceptoside B, were isolated and purified from Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with macroporous resin (MR) column separation. In the present study, the two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (13:3:10, v/v/v) was used for HSCCC separation. A total of 27 mg of forsythoside B, 41 mg of verbascoside, 29 mg of alyssonoside, 23 mg of isoverbascoside, and 13 mg of leucosceptoside B with purities of 97.7, 99.2, 99.5, 99.3, and 97.3%, respectively, were obtained in a one-step separation within 4 h from 150 mg of crude extract. The recoveries of the five PhGs after MR-HSCCC separation were 74.5, 76.5, 72.5, 76.4, and 77.0%, respectively. The chemical structures of all five compounds were identified by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy.
Four iridoid glucosides, shanzhiside methyl ester, phloyoside II, chlorotuberside, and penstemonoside, were isolated and purified from an herbal medicinal plant for the first time by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (5:14:12, v/v/v). A total of 37mg of shanzhiside methyl ester, 29mg of phloyoside II, 27mg of chlorotuberside, and 21mg of penstemonoside with the purity of 99.2%, 98.5%, 97.3%, and 99.3%, respectively, were obtained in one-step separation within 4h from 150mg of crude extract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of separation and purification of iridoid glucosides from natural sources by HSCCC. The chemical structures of all the four compounds were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR.
The effective, energy-saving and green subcritical fluid extraction (SFE) technology was applied to obtain the oil from <i>Lycium ruthenicum</i> seeds (LRSO). The optimal conditions of extraction parameters were found using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken experimental design. The maximum extraction yield of 21.20% was achieved at raw material particle size of 0.60 mm, extraction pressure of 0.63 MPa, temperature of 50 °C and time of 48 min. Other traditional extraction technologies were comparatively used. The physicochemical property of LRSO was analysed and the chemical compositions indicated that they were rich in unsaturated fatty acid, β-carotene, tocopherols and total phenolics. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of LRSO was evaluated by scavenging activity of three kinds of radicals (DPPH·, ·OH and O₂⁻·) and lipid peroxidation <i>in vitro</i>. And its results showed the oil had the potential to be a novel antioxidant agent for using in the field of food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.<br>Lycium ruthenicum seeds oil (LRSO) was obtained by subcritical fluid extraction (SFE), and the process of SFE was optimized using response surface methodology. LRSO was evaluated by determination of physicochemical property, lipophilic compositions and antioxidant activity. The study revealed the possibility of LRSO as a potential source of valuable product for commercial ventures (food, pharmaceuticals or cosmetics).
An orthogonally (80.3%) preparative two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method has been established for the isolation and purification of flavonoids from Saxifraga tangutica. Initially, flavonoids were enriched by means of a middle-pressure chromatographic tower (containing middle chromatogram isolated gel). In the first dimension, a XION preparative column was used to separate the flavonoid fractions under the guidance of characteristic ultraviolet absorption spectra of flavonoids and nine flavonoid fractions were obtained. Then, the coeluted flavonoid fractions were selected for further purification via reversed-phase liquid chromatography with the parent ion peak of quercetin (303), kaempferol (287), or isorhamnetin (317). Several flavonoids could be separated from each hydrophilic interaction chromatography fraction; furthermore, flavonoids with poor resolution in one-dimensional liquid chromatography were isolated in two-dimensional liquid chromatography due to the orthogonality. In addition, this technique was valuable for trace flavonoids, which were concentrated in the first stage and separated in the second stage. In total, 18 flavonoids with either quercetin, kaempferol, or isorhamnetin parent nuclei were targetedly obtained, and 15 flavonoids were obtained for the first time from S. tangutica. These results established that the off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography technique was efficient for the isolation of flavonoids from Saxifraga tangutica.