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This study aimed to investigate the role of different types and frequencies of physical exercise in biomarkers of oxidative stress among middle-aged and elderly community residents with essential hypertension in China. A community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 7 subdistricts. Individuals, 45-79 years old, with essential hypertension (n = 402) and without cardiovascular disease (n = 1047) were included. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were determined. Multilevel linear regression was used to estimate the associations between various types of physical exercise and oxidative stress biomarker levels. Participants engaged in high frequency walking/square dancing or taiji/yoga demonstrated decreased systolic blood pressure in both groups; however, diastolic blood pressure decreased only among individuals with hypertension participating in walking/square dancing. In individuals with hypertension, MDA levels decreased in those participating in walking/square dancing, SOD activity increased in those participating in walking/square dancing, and 4-HNE levels decreased in those involved in taiji/yoga. In individuals without cardiovascular disease, MDA levels decreased in those involved in walking/square dancing or taiji/yoga, SOD activity increased in those performing walking/square dancing, and 4-HNE levels decreased in those involved in taiji/yoga. Oxidative stress marker levels also improved in those involved in walking/square dancing or taiji/yoga groups as the exercise frequency increased. Thus, frequent participation in walking/square dancing or taiji/yoga effectively decreases hypertension-related oxidative stress biomarker levels.