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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the chemical components and microstructure of Nengchi Bajin ashes which are adjuvant material in the refining of Tibetan medicine gTSo thal, in order to explore the material basis of the refining of gTSo thal.METHOD: Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to measure the Nengchi Bajin ashes. RESULT: SEM-EDX analysis show that except of themselves elements of Nengchi Bajin ashes, Nengchi Bajin ashes contain the major elements, such as S, O, C and so on, also contain small amount other elements. XRD analysis show that the structures are AuPb2, PbO (tetragonal and orthorhombic) and Pb in gold ash, Ag2S and PbO in silver ash, Cu1.98 (Zn0.73 Fe0.29)Sn0.99 S4, CuS, SiO2, NaCu2S2 and Ca (Fe(+2), Mg) (CO3)2 in bronze ash, Cu7S4 (orthorhombic and monoclinic) and CuO in red copper ash, Cu7 S4, PbS, ZnS, CaCO3and NaCu2S2 in brass ash, FeS, Fe+2 Fe(2+3)O4 and SiO2 in iron ash, SnS and SiO2 tin ash, PbS, PbSO4 and SnS2 in lead ash. CONCLUSION: We have acquired the datum of elements and microstructure of Nengchi Bajin ashes by SEM-EDX and XRD techniques, and that is benefit to explore the material basis of refining gTSo thal.
In order to reveal the chemical substance basis of pharmacodynamic effects of Zuotai, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption fine structure (SR-XAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to analyze the elements, the chemical valence and local structure of mercury, and the chemical phase composition and micro-morphology of Zuotai. EDX and XRF analysis shows that the main elements in Zuotai are Hg and S, with some other minor elements, such as 0, Fe, Al, Cu, K, Ag, Ca, Mg etc. SR-XAFS analysis shows that: the oxidation state of mercury in Zuotai is divalence, its neighbor atoms are S, and its coordination number is four. XRD assay found that β-HgS (cubic, F-43m 216) and S8 (orthorhombic, Fddd 70) are the main phase compositions in Zuotai. Besides, it also has a small amount of C (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Fel.05 S0.95 (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Cu6S6 (hexagonal, P63/mmc 194), Cu1.8 S (cubic, F-43m 216) and so on. And it was found that the crystallinity of Zuotai is about 59%, and the amorphous morphology substance in it is about 41%. SEM and AFM detection suggests that Zuotai is a kind of ancient micro-nano drug, and its particle size is mainly in the range of 100-600 nm, even less than 100 nm, which commonly further aggregate into several to 30 µm loose amorphous particles. In summary, the present study elucidated physicochemical characterization(elements composition, coordination information of mercury, phase composition and micro-morphology) of Zuotai, and it will play a positive role in promoting the interpretation of this mysterious drug.;
OBJECTIVE: To further investigate and discuss the cause of species endangerment, the status and present problem of conservation of traditional Tibetan medicine in China.METHOD: Previous relevant investigations and literatures were summed up in the field. The present situation of conservation of traditional Tibetan medicine was analyzed. RESULT: The status of endangered resources, cause of species endangerment, the conserving status and conserving measures etc were elaborated. The classification was made and suggestion of species conservation of traditional Tibetan medicine were put forward. CONCLUSION: The endangered species conservation of traditional Tibetan medicine was carried out by building protective area of endangered species resources and plant garden, setting up germplasm bank, developing the domestication and cultivation of Tibetan medicinal herbs most in use, strengthening the investigation and study of endangered species, launching exchange and cooperation of conservation techniques on endangered species, enhancing the protective awareness of endangered species traditional Tibetan medicine etc. By so doing we can facilitate the sustainable development of traditional Tibetan medicine in China.