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Species identification and quality control of Tibetan medicines are an important part of its modernization studies, and they have important significance for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of Tibetan medicines in clinical application. In order to provide a reference for the modernization research of Tibetan medicines, this paper summarized the research progress of species identification, quality standards and quality evaluation of Tibetan medicines in the past 10 years. It also introduces the application examples of some new technologies and methods, such as DNA barcoding, infrared spectroscopy and 1H NMR-based metabolomics.; Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

This study using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support software(TCMISS) to analyze the prescription rules of Tibetan medicine containing Terminalia chebula in the Encyclopedia of Chinese Medicine-Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Composition Preparation of Modern Research and Clinical Application and Common Interpretation of Tibetan Medicine and so on. TCMISS(V2.5) was used to build a prescription database of Tibetan medicine containing T. chebula.The software statistical statement module, association rules and improved mutual information method and other data mining technologies were adopted to analyze the common herbs, combination rules and core combination of prescriptions containing T. chebula.Total 502 prescriptions containing T. chebula were analyzed and 14 common herbal combinations were summarized, whose ingredients mostly had the functions of clearing heat and detoxicating, promoting blood circulation and stopping pain, warming the middle-jiao and promoting the circulation of Qi. Prescriptions containing T. chebula were commonly used to treat 640 kinds of diseases, there are 22 kinds with high frequency(≥12) in which the representative "Tripa" disease, antiquated febrile symptoms, food poisoning had the highest frequency.T. chebula had different therapeutic effects through different compatibility.The complex composing and medication regularities of Tibetan medicine containing T. chebula have been clarified by TCMISS. That will provide reference for the clinical application of T. chebula and the new development.

To explore the medication regularity of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases, analyze the potential drug targets and interactions of the prescriptions, and reveal the mechanism of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases. The prescriptions in Tibetan medicine for treatment of spleen and stomach diseases were collected, and Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (TCMISS) was used to analyze the association rules between the herbs and discover the core herbs and new prescriptions. The integrated pharmacology platform V1.0 software was used to construct "herb-compound-target" network and investigate the interactions between various herbs and related pathways of Tibetan medicine Wuwei Shiliu powder in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases. Among the 216 prescriptions of Tibetan medicine in the treatment of spleen and stomach diseases, pomegranate seed was used at a highest frequency (118 times), followed by white cardamom (107 times) and comatose (107 times). 12 new prescriptions were evolved by using the association rules (support>=34%, confidence>=0.85). 5 242 related drug targets and 20 related pathways were obtained from classic formula Wuwei Shiliu Powder (FDR<0.01). It was proposed that Tibetan medicine treatment for spleen and stomach diseases was mainly based on proliferation of "stomach fire" and the main drugs were for regulating Qi-flowing for strengthening spleen. The mechanism may be associated with regulation of digestive juice secretion, proton pump, mitochondria, regulation of intestinal digestion and immunity, the body's immunity to microorganisms function and other multiple targets and pathways to achieve the joint intervention.

The study aims at providing a new suitable way to promote artificial cultivation, solving the problem of resources increasingly endangered wild medicine, and protecting the wild resources of Tibetan medicine. The content of quercetin,kaempferol and isorhamnetin was determined by HPLC. The correlation between flavonoids components and ecological factors was analyzed using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Based on Maxent model combining using ArcGIS software, suitable regionalization for H.rhamnoides subsp. sinensis was studied.The results showed that the difference of quercetin,kaempferol and isorhamnetin content in samples from different regions were obvious. The main factors effecting quercetin content accumulation were the altitude andthe average monthly precipitation in January and August. The main factors effecting kaempferol accumulation were the altitude andthe average monthly precipitation in the coldest quarter and December. The main factors effecting isorhamnetin accumulation were the average monthly precipitation in August, January and the coldest quarter.The regional distribution suitability index for H.rhamnoides subsp. sinensis was 0-0.708. The suitable area 590 500 km², accounting for 6.13% of the total area. The preferably suitable area was 552 500 km², accounting for 5.73% of the total area.The methods used in the study is simple and feasible, the result is reliable which provide a new approach for Tibetan medicine resources sustainable exploitation and utilization.

This study is aimed to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of skimmin, scopolin and umbelliferone in Saussurea hieracioides. Samples were analyzed on a Wondasil C18-WR column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with methanol (A) and water containing 0.1% phosphate (B) as mobile phases for gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength and column temperature were set at 325 nm and 35 degrees C, respectively, and the sample size was 10 microL. The results showed that skimmin, scopolin and umbelliferone were simultaneously achieved within 40 min under the above conditions. A good linearity was observed in the range of 0.18-5.6 microg (r = 1.000 0), 0.060-1.8 microg (r = 0.999 9), 0.032-0.97 microg (r = 0.999 8) for skimmin, scopolin and umbelliferone, respectively, with the average recoveries of 99.16% (RSD = 0.41%), 100.3% (RSD = 0.79%), 102.2% (RSD = 0.87%). The method is simple, accurate and reproducible and can be used for the quality control of S. hieracioides.

OBJECTIVE: To establish the HPLC fingerprint for Halenia elliptica herbs, a traditional Tibetan medicine, in order to study constituents contained in H. elliptica from different habitats and compare their differences.METHOD: HPLC analysis was made on a Welchrom-C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The wavelength was detected as 265 nm, the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the column temperature was 40 degrees C. The software for chromatographic fingerprint was applied to analyze the similarity. And principal component analysis was conducted. RESULT: Twelve common chromatographic peaks were identified by fingerprint, showing a low similarity in constituent and variety. The significant difference in the proportion between xanthones and aglycones in each batch of herbs indicated no notable correlation between constituent characteristics and geographic locations of habitats. CONCLUSION: The method is so simple, exclusive, stable and highly repeatable that it can provide reference for identification and quality assessment of H. elliptica herbs.

The article discusses hypoxic pathophysiology and high-altitude medicine as of December 2012, with a focus on the traditional Tibetan medicine Duoxuekang and its potential prevention of high-altitude polycythemia (HAPC) induced by hypoxia. Topics include the oxygen-carrying capacity of human blood, reduction of red blood cell and hemoglobin counts, and serum erythropoietin (EPO). Additional information is presented on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1.

This study is aimed to explore the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium combined application on the active components of Rhodiola crenulata. R. crenulata was used as the research object, "3414" fertilization experiment were conducted with regular fertilization of NPK(N 60 kg·hm⁻², P₂O₅ 100 kg·hm⁻²,KCl 160 kg·hm⁻²) to study the effect of different rates of NPK fertilization on the total amount of 4 phenolic constituents of gallic acid, salidroside, tyrol and ethyl gallate through field test. The results show that the content of salidroside was higher in the treatment of N₁P₂K₁ and N₁P₂K₂, andthe total amount of four phenols was higher in the treatment of N₁P₂K₂ and N₂P₂K₂. The suitable level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium promoted the accumulation of the 4 kinds of phenols.The amount of fertilizer recommended by the three factor fertilizer effect equation,(N 0 kg·hm⁻²,P₂O₅ 150 kg·hm⁻²,KCl 31.71 kg·hm⁻²) obtained the highest content of salidroside, and it was 1.54%.(N 35.54 kg·hm⁻²,P₂O₅ 150 kg·hm⁻²,KCl 237.73 kg·hm⁻²)obtained the highest content of 4 kinds of phenolic compounds, and it was 1.93%. This study provides a reference for the standardization of artificial planting of endangered Tibetan medicine.

With the rapid development of Tibetan medicine industry, the study on plateau medicinal plants' endangered status is not enough, measures to protect is weak and the plateau ecological environment' inherent vulnerability, resulted in the shortage of Tibetan medicinal resources and affect the sustainable development . According to the existing endangered information of Tibetan medicine resources, how to formulate feasible protection plan, is an urgent problem of the rational development and utilization of Tibetan medicine resources to be solved. To find out the endangered Tibetan medicines in Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the Grade division method of Chinese Rare and Endangered Plants was applied, the endangered species were sorted out, which divided into class one (threatened) eleven species, class two (rare) twenty-one species, and class three (fading) forty-two species,a total of seventy-four species.In addition to national protection list in "Chinese rare and endangered plants". It's proposed to increase the endangered Tibetan medicinal species. Finally, according to the endangered status of the resources,from the survey of endangered Tibetan medicinal species regularly, the germplasm repository establishment of endangered Tibetan medicine, in situ conservation, artificial cultivation research and renew the idea, reasonable development and utilization, a total of 5 aspects to discussed the protection strategy, to provide a scientific basis for the protection and sustainable utilization of Tibetan medicine resources in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Fecal Tibetan medicines have a long history of application in China, with a good clinical efficacy. In order to promote the development and modernization of these medicines, we consulted ancient and modern Tibetan medicine literatures to collect and summarize the names, original species, natures, flavor, functions and processing methods of fecal Tibetan medicines. A total of 35 fecal Tibetan medicines were collected, such as Jiufen, Heibingpian, Langfen, Mafen, Goufen, Gezifen. The most commonly used medicines were Jiufen and Heibingpian. Both were mainly used for the treatment of indigestion, food abdominal distension, gastric ulcer, and other gastrointestinal diseases. At present, there are only a few studies on the active ingredients, pharmacodynamics and mechanism of action of these medicines. Therefore, further study shall be conducted. The regulation of gut microbiota may be a new way to evaluate the effectiveness of fecal Tibetan medicines and their mechanism of action.

To differentiate three medicinal Hippopahe species of seabuckthorn, a combined genetic and chemical identification method was established in this study. ITS2 and psbA-trnH were tested for identification of 3 species of seabuckthorn. Detection of the kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distance, the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree and the barcoding gap were used to assess the identification efficiency. ¹H-NMR based metabolic method was applied to acquire the profile of metabolites. PCA was used to analysis the metabolite data. The results indicated that DNA barcode combined ¹H-NMR based metabolic method is a powerful tool for the identification of 3 medicinal Hippopahe species of seabuckthorn. The finding demonstrated that different genetic variation and chemical constituents existed among 3 medicinal Hippopahe species of seabuckthorn. The combined identification method will improve the reliability of species discrimination and could be applicable to much other ethnic medicine which has various origins in China.

This study established an HPLC fingerprint of Tibetan medicine Shaji Gao from different habitats and lay a foundation for Shaji Gao varieties identification and preparation process. The chromatographic condition was as follow: Agilent zorbax SB-C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) eluted with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 0.4% phosphoric acid water in gradient mode. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was set at 360 nm. The fingerprints of 15 batches Shaji Gao were carried out by similarity comparation, 7 chromatographic peaks were extracted as the common peaks of fingerprint, 3 peaks were identified, which were quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The similarity degrees of 14 batches of samples were above 0.9 and 1 batch of samples was below 0.9. This is the first established fingerprint of Shaji Gao by using HPLC. This method has good precision, stability and repeatability that it could provide basis for quality control and evaluation of Shaji Gao.

The ITS2 barcode was used toidentify Tibetan medicine "Dida", and tosecure its quality and safety in medication. A total of 13 species, 151 experimental samples for the study from the Tibetan Plateau, including Gentianaceae Swertia, Halenia, Gentianopsis, Comastoma, Lomatogonium ITS2 sequences were amplified, and purified PCR products were sequenced. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner V3.7.1. The Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) distances were calculated using MEGA 6.0. The neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees were constructed. There are 31 haplotypes among 231 bp after alignment of all ITS2 sequence haplotypes, and the average G±C content of 61.40%. The NJ tree strongly supported that every species clustered into their own clade and high identification success rate, except that Swertia bifolia and Swertia wolfangiana could not be distinguished from each other based on the sequence divergences. DNA barcoding could be used as a fast and accurate identification method to distinguish Tibetan medicine "Dida" to ensure its safe use.

Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis Rousi, Hippophae gyantsensis (Rousi) Y. S. Lian, Hippophae neurocarpa S. W. Liu & T. N. He and Hippophae tibetana Schlechtendal are typically used under one name “Shaji”, to treat cardiovascular diseases and lung disorders in Tibetan medicine (TM). A complete set of infrared (IR) macro-fingerprints of these four Hippophae species should be characterized and compared simply, accurately, and in detail for identification. In the present study, tri-step IR spectroscopy, which included Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) spectroscopy, second derivative IR (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-IR) spectroscopy, was employed to discriminate the four Hippophae species and their corresponding extracts using different solvents. The relevant spectra exhibited the holistic chemical compositions and variations. Flavonoids, fatty acids and sugars were found to be the main chemical components. Characteristic peak positions, intensities and shapes derived from FT-IR, SD-IR and 2D-IR spectra provided valuable information for sample discrimination. Principal component analysis (PCA) of spectral differences was performed to illustrate the objective identification. Results showed that the species and their extracts can be clearly distinguished. Thus, a quick, precise and effective tri-step IR spectroscopy combined with PCA can be applied to identify and discriminate medicinal materials and their extracts in TM research.

This study was aimed to discuss and analyze the medication rules for prescriptions containing Pterocephali Herba in Chinese Medical Encyclopedia - Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Prescription Modern Research and Clinical Application, and Interpretation of Common Tibetan Medicines based on the collection of Pterocephali Herba and by using the "Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support system(V2.0.1)",with the use of association rules, apriori algorithm and other data mining methods. The frequency of single drug, the frequency of drug combination, the association rule and the combination of core drugs were analyzed. Through collection of the prescriptions, a total of 215 prescriptions were included, involving a total of 376 herbs. Through the "frequency statistics", the prescriptions containing Pterocephali Herba were commonly used to treat cold fever, distemper virus and arthritis. The highest frequently (frequency≥15) used drugs were Corydalis Herba, Lagotidis Herba, and Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, et al. The most frequently used drug combinations were "Pterocephali Herba, Corydalis Herba","Pterocephali Herba, Lagotidis Herba", and "Pterocephali Herba, Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix" et al. The prescriptions containing Pterocephali Herba were used to primarily treat disease for Tourette syndrome caused by the dampness heat toxin, fever, arthritis etc, such as pestilent toxicity, pneumonia and influenza, rheumatoid arthritis etc. The drugs in the prescriptions mostly had the effects of heat-clearing and detoxifying, anti-inflammatory, dispelling wind and dampness, often in compatible use with heat-clearing drugs. The drug use was concentrated and reflected the clear thought of prescription statutes.

Swertia mussotii Franch. and Swertia chirayita Buch.-Ham. have been commonly used under the same name "Zangyinchen" for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine. Detailed characterization and comparison of the complete set of metabolites of these two species are critical for their objective identification and quality control. In this study, a rapid, simple and comprehensive (1)H NMR-based metabolomics method was first developed to differentiate the two species. A broad range of metabolites, including iridoid glycosides, xanthones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, were identified. Statistical analysis showed evident differences between the two species, and the major markers responsible for the differences were screened. In addition, quantitative (1)H NMR method (qHNMR) was used for the target analysis of the discriminating metabolites. The results showed that S. mussotii had significantly higher contents of gentiopicrin, isoorientin, glucose, loganic acid, and choline, whereas S. chirayita exhibited higher levels of swertiamarin, oleanolic acid, valine, and fatty acids. These findings indicate that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is a reliable and effective method for the metabolic profiling and discrimination of the two Swertia species, and can be used to verify the genuine origin of Zangyinchen.

Swertia mussotii Franch. and Swertia chirayita Buch.-Ham. have been commonly used under the same name 'Zangyinchen' for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine. Detailed characterization and comparison of the complete set of metabolites of these two species are critical for their objective identification and quality control. In this study, a rapid, simple and comprehensive H-1 NMR-based metabolomics method was first developed to differentiate the two species. A broad range of metabolites, including iridoid glycosides, xanthones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, were identified. Statistical analysis showed evident differences between the two species, and the major markers responsible for the differences were screened. In addition, quantitative H-1 NMR method (qHNMR) was used for the target analysis of the discriminating metabolites. The results showed that S. mussotii had significantly higher contents of gentiopicrin, isoorientin, glucose, loganic acid, and choline, whereas S. chirayita exhibited higher levels of swertiamarin, oleanolic acid, valine, and fatty acids. These findings indicate that H-1 NMR-based metabolomics is a reliable and effective method for the metabolic profiling and discrimination of the two Swertia species, and can be used to verify the genuine origin of Zangyinchen. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

<br>• A 1H NMR-based method is first developed to differentiate two <b>Swertia</b> species. • The two <b>Swertia</b> species exhibit significant differences in their metabolic profiling. • Nine metabolic markers responsible for the differences are screened out. • A qHNMR method is used for quantitative analysis of the discriminating metabolites. • The proposed 1H NMR-based metabolomics method is rapid, reliable and effective.<br><b>Swertia mussotii</b> Franch. and <b>Swertia chirayita</b> Buch.-Ham. have been commonly used under the same name “Zangyinchen” for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine. Detailed characterization and comparison of the complete set of metabolites of these two species are critical for their objective identification and quality control. In this study, a rapid, simple and comprehensive 1H NMR-based metabolomics method was first developed to differentiate the two species. A broad range of metabolites, including iridoid glycosides, xanthones, triterpenoids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, were identified. Statistical analysis showed evident differences between the two species, and the major markers responsible for the differences were screened. In addition, quantitative 1H NMR method (qHNMR) was used for the target analysis of the discriminating metabolites. The results showed that <b>S. mussotii</b> had significantly higher contents of gentiopicrin, isoorientin, glucose, loganic acid, and choline, whereas <b>S. chirayita</b> exhibited higher levels of swertiamarin, oleanolic acid, valine, and fatty acids. These findings indicate that 1H NMR-based metabolomics is a reliable and effective method for the metabolic profiling and discrimination of the two <b>Swertia</b> species, and can be used to verify the genuine origin of Zangyinchen.

In this study, a computer-based network pharmacology approach was applied to investigate the potential mechanism and important components of Rhodiola crenulata in the protection of H9c2 cells against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative stress. The intestinal absorption liquid of R. crenulata enhanced the cell viability, maintained cell morphology and inhibited cell apoptosis in the H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress in H9c2. Then, computer-based network pharmacology was used to analyze the relevant mechanism. A total of 133 oxidative stress-related compounds were screened out; and 26 of them occupied the top 20%, and all of the compounds enriched in 43 oxidative stress-related key targets. Finally, a "compound-target-pathway-function" network was constructed. Based on the analysis of the network pharmacology, R. crenulata protected H9c2 cells against H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress probably by affecting apoptosis-related processes, such as cell death, nitric oxide metabolism, oxidative stress, mitochondrial mechanism, redox process, redox-related enzyme activty and other oxidative stress-related process. And salidroside, ethyl gallate and catechins, which were the main components of R. crenulata, played an important role in this process. Therefore, the potential mechanism and important components of R. crenulata revealed the protective effect on oxidative stress. This study shows a multi-component, multi-target and overall regulation effect of R. crenulata on the oxidative stress, and provides a reliable reference for subsequent systematic experimental studies for the pharmacodynamic material foundation and mechanism of action R. crenulata.

Liver disease is one of the most risk factors threatening human health. It is of great significance to find drugs that can treat liver diseases, especially for acute and chronic hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and liver cancer. The search for drugs with good efficacy from traditional natural medicines has attracted more and more attention. Tibetan medicine, one of the China's traditional medical systems, has been widely used by the Tibetan people for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases for hundreds of years. The present paper summarized the natural Tibetan medicines that have been used in Tibetan traditional system of medicine to treat liver diseases by bibliographic investigation of 22 Tibetan medicine monographs and drug standards. One hundred and ninety three species including 181 plants, 7 animals, and 5 minerals were found to treat liver diseases in traditional Tibetan medicine system. The most frequently used species are Carthamus tinctorius, Brag-zhun, Swertia chirayita, Swertia mussotii, Halenia elliptica, Herpetospermum pedunculosum, and Phyllanthus emblica. Their names, families, medicinal parts, traditional uses, phytochemicals information, and pharmacological activities were described in detail. These natural medicines might be a valuable gift from the old Tibetan medicine to the world, and would be potential drug candidates for the treatment of liver diseases. Further studies are needed to prove their medicinal values in liver diseases treatment, identify bioactive compounds, elucidate the underlying mechanism of action, and clarify their side effects or toxicity with the help of modern phytochemical, pharmacological, metabonomics, and/or clinical trial methods.

Tibetan medicine "Dida" isoccasionally misused due to its complex origins, which ultimately affects its clinical efficacy. The accurate name, origin, property, and efficacy of "Dida"are highly important for its further research and development. In the present study, by viewing the classic Tibetan medicine and modern literature, and combining the clinical practice of Tibetan medicine, the origins, properties and the clinic effects of "Dida" were defined. "Dida" originated from multiple plant species of Swertia, Gentianopsis, Halenia, Lomatogonium, Comastoma(Gentianaceae), Hedyotis (Saxifragaceae) and Erysimum (Cruciferae). The medicinal properties of "Dida" is mainly bitter and cold. It has been commonly used to treat febrile diseases and hepatic and gall diseases. This study suggested that the relevant herbalogical study, species identification and pharmacological effects of "Dida" should be taken based on the Tibetan medicine theories and clinical practice. Thus the medicine can be better used and ensure its safety and quality simultaneously.

With the development of Tibetan medicine industry, the demands for Tibetan medicine were rising sharply. In addition, with the eco-environment vulnerability of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region and the phenomenon of synonymies and homonymies in Tibetan medicine, there were a lack of resources and varieties in the clinical application of Tibetan medicine. At present, the shortage of Tibetan medicine and the inadequacy of its quality standard have become the two major problems that seriously restricted the sustainable development of Tibetan medicine industry. Therefore, it is important to develop the resources investigation and quality evaluation for Tibetan medicine, which were contribute to its resources protection and sustainable utilization. In this paper, current status of resources investigation, quality standardization, artificial breeding and germplasm resources of Tibetan medicine were presented by the integrated application of the new technologies, such as DNA barcoding and 1H-NMR, which provided a reference information for resources protection, sustainable utilization, variety identification and quality standardization of Tibetan medicine resources in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

The investigation aims to better understand the resource status of Rhodiola kirilowii, analysis the suitable habitat of wild Rh. kirilowii and protect the wild resources of Rh. Kirilowii, promoting the sustainable utilization of Rh. kirilowii resources. In this paper, we investigated the wild resources of Rh. kirilowii in 16 counties of Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan by means of investigation and sampling investigation combined with interview. The results showed that the population densities of wild Rh. kirilowii in 4 provinces were very different and the reserve of wild resources decreased gradually in many areas. According to the survey results, the current total reserve of Rh. kirilowii in four provinces was about 1 100 t. The reserve of wild Rh. kirilowii in Sichuan province was the largest. Simultaneously, the Rh. kirilowii had a certain ecological value. We found that a sand control base with planting Rh. kirilowii was set up in Hongyuan County of Sichuan Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture. The investigation provides a scientific basis for the development and sustainable utilization of Rh. kirilowii resources.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhodiola crenulata, a traditional Tibetan medicine, has shown promise in the treatment of hypobaric hypoxia (HH)-induced brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the protective effects of R. crenulata aqueous extract (RCAE) on HH-induced brain injury in rats.MATERIALS AND METHODS: An animal model of high-altitude hypoxic brain injury was established in SD rats using an animal decompression chamber for 24 h. Serum and hippocampus levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were then determined using commercial biochemical kits. Neuron morphology and vitality were also evaluated using H&E and Nissl staining, and TUNEL staining was used to examine apoptosis. Gene and protein expression of HIF-1α, microRNA 210, ISCU1/2, COX10, Apaf-1, cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, and Cyto-c were determined by western blot, immunohistochemical and qRT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: RCAE administration attenuated HH-induced brain injury as evidenced by decreased levels of MDA, LDH, and GSSG, increased GSH and SOD, improvements in hippocampus histopathological changes, increased cell vitality and ATP level, and reduced apoptotic cell numbers. RCAE treatment also enhanced HIF-1α, ISCU1/2, COX10, and Bcl-2 protein expression, while dramatically inhibiting expression of Apaf-1, Bax, Cyto-c, and cleaved Caspase-3. Treatment also increased gene levels of HIF-1α, microRNA 210, ISCU1/2, and COX10, and decreased Caspase-3 gene production. CONCLUSIONS: RCAE attenuated HH-induced brain injury by regulating apoptosis and mitochondrial energy metabolism via the HIF-1α/microRNA 210/ISCU1/2 (COX10) signaling pathway.

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