Skip to main content Skip to search
Displaying 1 - 4 of 4
BACKGROUND: Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae, commonly known as Qinjiao (in Chinese), is dried roots of medicinal plants that belong to Gentianaceae family and Gentiana genus. It has medically been used for the treatment of various diseases such as arthritis, stroke, facial paralysis, and scapulohumeral periarthritis in China since ancient times.PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and constructive overview of Qinjiao mainly containing Gentiana macrophylla Pall., Gentiana straminea Maxim., Gentiana crasicaulis Duthie ex Burk., and Gentiana daurica Fisch. in botany, traditional use, phytochemicals, pharmacology (biological activities and pharmacokinetics), quality control, and authentication according to the up-to-date data of available scientific literatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All information regarding these four plants was collected from various academic search engines for example Google, Google Scholar, Web of Science, SciFinder, Pubmed, CNKI, and Wanfang. Additional information was obtained from botanical books, Chinese classic texts, and medical monographs. RESULTS: So far 166 compounds have been isolated and identified from Qinjiao plants together with Gentiana tibetica King ex Hook. f., Gentiana siphonantha Maxim., Gentiana officinalis H. Smith, and Gentiana waltonii Burk. Their constituents are mainly classified into iridoid glycosides, triterpenes, flavones, sterols, benzene derivatives, etc. The pharmacological studies demonstrate that Qinjiao plants display a wide range of bioactivities e.g. anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, cardio- and neuro-protective, insecticidal, and anti-influenza effects. The conventional quality control is performed by determination of the concentration of some compounds, e.g., gentiopicroside, or establishment of the fingerprint. In addition to seed propagation, tissue culture technology has been used to address the limited supplies and guarantee the sustainable development of Qinjiao in the experimental scale. CONCLUSIONS: Although the identification of compounds from Qinjiao and demonstration of medicinal uses in vitro and in vivo have been carried out, various other studies on these plants should deserve our more attention. More efforts should be concentrated on the underlying mechanisms of their beneficial bioactivities. The proper toxic evaluation is indispensable to guarantee the safety, efficacy, and eligibility for medical use. To sum up, the summarized achievements could highlight the importance of Qinjiao and provide a solid foundation for scientists not only to further exploit the therapeutic potentials, but also possibly develop novel drugs in the subsequent research.

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright (D. zingiberensis), Dioscoreaceae, is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicines. The aim of the current review paper is to give a comprehensive overview of the traditional usage and phytochemistry of the plant. Clinical studies performed and products prepared from the plant and active principles will be mentioned. In addition a review of the taxonomy of the genus Dioscorea is given.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search on literature has been performed in databases like Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scifinder, Web of Science, and in Chinese databases (China Knowledge Resource Integrated, i.e., CNKI and Wanfang) including Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations. These from the period 1983-2016 have been searched. RESULTS: D. zingiberensis is an endemic plant in China widely distributed in some provinces, especially Hubei and Shaanxi. The rhizomes are the medicinal part in Dun-Ye-Guan-Xin-Ning tablets and are used for isolation of diosgenin. Steroidal saponins are believed to be the active principles. More than 70 compounds have been identified. Several of these have been tested in preclinical assays and clinical trials. A wide spectrum of biological effects including cardiovascular, anti-thrombosis, hyperlipidemia, neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic effect has been verified. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the promising results from the investigations on the plant material of D. zingiberensis, further in depth analyses ought to be performed to evaluate its potential as either a traditional drug or a source of bioactive principle. The presently performed studies do not explain mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics (ADME properties), or toxicity. All of these topics need more elaborate investigations.

Diosgenin wastewater produced from <b>Dioscorea zingiberensis</b> C. H. Wright in diosgenin enterprise is the by-product of numerous operations chiefly including washing raw materials, acid hydrolysis, and cleaning the apparatus with water. It requires the removal of high concentrations of various organic and inorganic contaminants from this wastewater in order to avoid pollution to the environment and fresh water system. Currently, several different methods such as chemical, physicochemical, biological recovery resource, constructed wetland, and integrated methods of these processes are being applied for treating diosgenin wastewater. Aiming to get a comprehensive overview, available reports from experimental scale to industry scale about the treatment of this wastewater were collected and summarized. Therefore, this review paper will provide appropriate choice for the efficient treatment of diosgenin wastewater and supportive information for the other scientists who want to continue this valuable research in the future.<br><br>Display Omitted<br>• Studies of diosgenin wastewater treatment between 2003 and 2016 are reviewed. • Characteristics of diosgenin wastewater are presented. • These methods used for diosgenin wastewater are compared. • Merits and demerits of each approach to cope with diosgenin wastewater are stated. • Future promising ways should be updated based on currently available ones.

Sub-acute and chronic toxic effects of total steroidal saponins (TSSN) extracts from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright on various internal organs and biochemical indicators have never been studied before and this study is the first of its kind to demonstrate sub-acute and chronic toxicities of TSSN on dogs. Administration of TSSN extracts at doses up to 3000 mg/Kg daily for 14 days, no biochemical and organ changes were observed on the experimental groups of dogs. Further, chronic toxicity study through oral administration of TSSN extracts at the gradual doses of 50, 250 and 500 mg/Kg for 90 days followed by a 2-week recovery assay revealed absence of significant architectural and morphological changes in internal organs which were confirmed through histopathological examination and merely no significant alteration in the biochemical indicators including hematologic and urine analysis and electrocardiogram compared to the control dogs. This toxicological evaluation came across with the finding that the herbal preparation can be considered as nontoxic and animals could tolerate the extracts at doses up to 500 mg/Kg with LD50 greater than 3000 mg/Kg. It may serve as a preliminary scientific evidence for further therapeutic investigations.