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"Bangjian" were traditional Tibetan medicine-flowers from Gentianaceae, which were widely used and had a long medicinal history for the function of detoxifying, curing heat symptoms and treating the laryngitis. The Tibetan compound preparation endowed SFDA approval number always used Bangjian aas the main raw materials for relieving cough, asthma and treating respiratory diseases such as acute and chronic bronchitis. Its commodity medicinal materials were also sold in Qinghai, Sichuan, Tibet and other local medicinal materials market and local specialty marke. However, when recorded by literatures of Tibetan medicine, Bangjian were often classified into white, blue and black or white, blue and variegated according to color of flowers, leading to disordered varieties. In this paper, different Bangjian including their original plants and the main application varieties were studied and authenticated by textual research, wild specimen collection, investigation and collection of samples from Tibetan hospitals,Tibetan pharmaceutical factories and medical material markets. Results showed that Bangjian-including blue, black and variegated flowers were originated from 14 species and 3 varietas according to literatures, and the main application varieties mainly come from Ser. Ornatae of Sect. Monopodiae, such as Gentiana veitchiorum for the most, G. sino-ornata as well as G. lawrencei var. farreri. Suggestion about establishing the quality standard of Bangjian was gived, which provided reference in reasonable use and scientific research for Bangjian, and also had practical value for its clinical use and development.

Anthocyanins are the main compounds in Nitraria tangutorun Bobr. The enrichment and purification of anthocyanins on macroporous resins were investigated. Regarding anthocyanin purification, static adsorption and desorption were studied. The optimal experimental conditions were the following: resin type: X-5; static adsorption time: 6h; desorption solution: ethanol-water-HCl (80:19:1, V/V/V; pH 1); desorption time: 40min. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the anthocyanins were evaluated. The anthocyanins showed ideal scavenging effects on free radicals in vitro, especially on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radical (OH). In the animal experiment, blood lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats was regulated by anthocyanin contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hyperlipidemia rats were also improved by anthocyanins. These results showed that anthocyanins from N. tangutorun Bobr. fruits had potential biological activities in vivo as well as in vitro.

Anthocyanins are the main compounds in Nitraria tangutorun Bobr. The enrichment and purification of anthocyanins on macroporous resins were investigated. Regarding anthocyanin purification, static adsorption and desorption were studied. The optimal experimental conditions were the following: resin type: X-5; static adsorption time: 6h; desorption solution: ethanol-water-HCl (80:19:1, V/V/V; pH 1); desorption time: 40min. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the anthocyanins were evaluated. The anthocyanins showed ideal scavenging effects on free radicals in vitro, especially on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radical (OH). In the animal experiment, blood lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats was regulated by anthocyanin contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of hyperlipidemia rats were also improved by anthocyanins. These results showed that anthocyanins from N. tangutorun Bobr. fruits had potential biological activities in vivo as well as in vitro.

Zuotais regarded as the king of Tibetan medicine. However, the major starting material ofZuotais mercury, which is one very toxic heavy metal. This has aroused serious doubts on the biosafety ofZuotacontaining drugs. In this study, we quantified the Hg contents in fourZuotasamples, monitored the release of Hg in simulated gastric/intestinal juice and evaluated their cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that the Hg contents inZuotasamples were in the range of 566–676 mg/g. Fortunately, the release of Hg fromZuotasamples was very low in simulated gastric juice, and much lower in simulated intestinal juice. Direct contact ofZuotawith Caco-2 cells led to dose-dependent cytotoxicity, including activity loss and membrane leakage. The toxicity was closely related to apoptosis, because the caspase 3/7 levels of Caco-2 cells increased after the exposure toZuota. Interestingly,Zuotasamples inhibited the oxidative stress at low concentrations, but the toxicity could be relived by antioxidants. The possible toxicity should be attributed to the cellular uptake ofZuotaparticulates. Beyond the cytotoxicity, significant differences amongZuotasamples from different institutions were observed, suggesting that the preparation process ofZuotahad meaningful influence of its biosafety. The implications to the safety and clinical applications ofZuotaare discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Zuota is regarded as the king of Tibetan medicine. However, the major starting material of Zuota is mercury, which is one very toxic heavy metal. This has aroused serious doubts on the biosafety of Zuota containing drugs. In this study, we quantified the Hg contents in four Zuota samples, monitored the release of Hg in simulated gastric/intestinal juice and evaluated their cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that the Hg contents in Zuota samples were in the range of 566-676 mg/g. Fortunately, the release of Hg from Zuota samples was very low in simulated gastric juice, and much lower in simulated intestinal juice. Direct contact of Zuota with Caco-2 cells led to dose-dependent cytotoxicity, including activity loss and membrane leakage. The toxicity was closely related to apoptosis, because the caspase 3/7 levels of Caco-2 cells increased after the exposure to Zuota. Interestingly, Zuota samples inhibited the oxidative stress at low concentrations, but the toxicity could be relived by antioxidants. The possible toxicity should be attributed to the cellular uptake of Zuota particulates. Beyond the cytotoxicity, significant differences among Zuota samples from different institutions were observed, suggesting that the preparation process of Zuota had meaningful influence of its biosafety. The implications to the safety and clinical applications of Zuota are discussed.

BACKGROUND: Soft tissue injury imposes major public health burdens worldwide. The positive effect of China's Tibetan medicine and the Lamiophlomis rotata-based herbal Pain Relieving Plaster (PRP) on healing closed soft tissue injury (CSTI) has been reported. The herbs contained in Plaster are also referred as 'blood-activating and stasis-dispelling' in herbal medicine. The formula of the plaster contains four China's Tibetan medical herbs, including Lamiophlomis rotata, Oxytropis falcate Bunge, Curcuma longa Linn, and Myricaria bracteata. Two of these herbs (Lamiophlomis rotate; Curcuma longa Linn) are commonly used in different formulae of Chinese medicine. The objective of this study is to use an interdisciplinary approach to test the hypothesis that the formula and its components influence the process of CSTI.METHODS: In vivo models have been established in 30 rabbit ear pinnae and studied for: (1) blood flow velocity (BFV) which was affected by pressure of 21.2 kg/cm2 for 30 second over the local rabbit ear tissue; (2) edema formation of the closed soft tissue injury; (3) in vivo local temperature change. RESULTS: The results of in vivo studies indicated that CSTI significantly increased the velocity of blood flow and increased edema formation within the control group. The PRP extracts for 5 hours significantly slowed down the BFV of CSTI in rabbit ears, markedly decreased the elevated edema level from the 3rd to the 5th day. CONCLUSION: The ingredients contained in the formula have positive effects in healing CSTI and further study is worth exploring.

BACKGROUND: Soft tissue injury imposes major public health burdens worldwide. The positive effect of China's Tibetan medicine and the Lamiophlomis rotata-based herbal Pain Relieving Plaster (PRP) on healing closed soft tissue injury (CSTI) has been reported. The herbs contained in Plaster are also referred as 'blood-activating and stasis-dispelling' in herbal medicine. The formula of the plaster contains four China's Tibetan medical herbs, including Lamiophlomis rotata, Oxytropis falcate Bunge, Curcuma longa Linn, and Myricaria bracteata. Two of these herbs (Lamiophlomis rotate; Curcuma longa Linn) are commonly used in different formulae of Chinese medicine. The objective of this study is to use an interdisciplinary approach to test the hypothesis that the formula and its components influence the process of CSTI. METHODS: In vivo models have been established in 30 rabbit ear pinnae and studied for: (1) blood flow velocity (BFV) which was affected by pressure of 21.2 kg/cm2 for 30 second over the local rabbit ear tissue; (2) edema formation of the closed soft tissue injury; (3) in vivo local temperature change. RESULTS: The results of in vivo studies indicated that CSTI significantly increased the velocity of blood flow and increased edema formation within the control group. The PRP extracts for 5 hours significantly slowed down the BFV of CSTI in rabbit ears, markedly decreased the elevated edema level from the 3rd to the 5th day. CONCLUSION: The ingredients contained in the formula have positive effects in healing CSTI and further study is worth exploring.

Most species of <ce:italic>Gentianaceae</ce:italic> in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are traditional Tibetan medicines which were used for stabilizing liver functions and improving the gallbladder. They were used for curing hepatitis, cholecystitis and other diseases. We have studied the chemical composition of 12 species of Gentianaceae and extracted 17 xanthone glycosides. Nine of them are new natural products. Pharmacological studies showed that xanthone C-glycosides is beneficial to the gallbladder and that xanthone O-glycosides is the effective component in curing hepatitis.

Mercury sulfides are used in Ayurvedic medicines, Tibetan medicines, and Chinese medicines for thousands of years and are still used today. Cinnabar (α-HgS) and metacinnabar (β-HgS) are different from mercury chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury (MeHg) in their disposition and toxicity. Whether such scenario applies to weanling and aged animals is not known. To address this question, weanling (21d) and aged (450d) rats were orally given Zuotai (54% β-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgS (α-HgS, 30mg/kg), HgCl2 (34.6mg/kg), or MeHg (MeHgCl, 3.2mg/kg) for 7days. Accumulation of Hg in kidney and liver, and the toxicity-sensitive gene expressions were examined. Animal body weight gain was decreased by HgCl2 and to a lesser extent by MeHg, but unaltered after Zuotai and HgS. HgCl2 and MeHg produced dramatic tissue Hg accumulation, increased kidney (kim-1 and Ngal) and liver (Ho-1) injury-sensitive gene expressions, but such changes are absent or mild after Zuotai and HgS. Aged rats were more susceptible than weanling rats to Hg toxicity. To examine roles of transporters in Hg accumulation, transporter gene expressions were examined. The expression of renal uptake transporters Oat1, Oct2, and Oatp4c1 and hepatic Oatp2 was decreased, while the expression of renal efflux transporter Mrp2, Mrp4 and Mdr1b was increased following HgCl2 and MeHg, but unaffected by Zuotai and HgS. Thus, Zuotai and HgS differ from HgCl2 and MeHg in producing tissue Hg accumulation and toxicity, and aged rats are more susceptible than weanling rats. Transporter expression could be adaptive means to reduce tissue Hg burden.

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