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Dahuang Lidan Pian contains Rheum palmatum, Gymnadenia conopsea and Phyllanthus emblica, which has a significant effect in the treatment of alcoholic fatty liver, cholestasis and cholecystitis. The efficacy of the formula in traditional Chinese medicine was clearing heat and promoting diuresis, removing dampness, detoxifying and relieving jaundice. These three herbs are widely used in the traditional Chinese medicine, Mongolian medicine and Tibetan medicine. Therefore, the formula was a representative subject in the researches for ethno-drugs. In this research, computer aided drug design methods were used to predict the action targets of the formula. Protein interaction network (PIN) was then constructed, and molecular complex detection (MCODE) clustering algorithm was used to obtain the modules of the formula, so as to analyze the potential action mechanism. The results showed that Rh. palmatum and P. emblica may have a synergistic protective effect on liver function by acting on analogous targets and pathways. G. conopsea regulated metabolic balance of nutrients to strengthen physical fitness. The research explained the liver-protecting mechanism of Dahuang Lidan Pian based on the PIN analysis on molecular network, which provides an reference for the further study of Dahuang Lidan Pian.

BACKGROUND: Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae, commonly known as Qinjiao (in Chinese), is dried roots of medicinal plants that belong to Gentianaceae family and Gentiana genus. It has medically been used for the treatment of various diseases such as arthritis, stroke, facial paralysis, and scapulohumeral periarthritis in China since ancient times.PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and constructive overview of Qinjiao mainly containing Gentiana macrophylla Pall., Gentiana straminea Maxim., Gentiana crasicaulis Duthie ex Burk., and Gentiana daurica Fisch. in botany, traditional use, phytochemicals, pharmacology (biological activities and pharmacokinetics), quality control, and authentication according to the up-to-date data of available scientific literatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All information regarding these four plants was collected from various academic search engines for example Google, Google Scholar, Web of Science, SciFinder, Pubmed, CNKI, and Wanfang. Additional information was obtained from botanical books, Chinese classic texts, and medical monographs. RESULTS: So far 166 compounds have been isolated and identified from Qinjiao plants together with Gentiana tibetica King ex Hook. f., Gentiana siphonantha Maxim., Gentiana officinalis H. Smith, and Gentiana waltonii Burk. Their constituents are mainly classified into iridoid glycosides, triterpenes, flavones, sterols, benzene derivatives, etc. The pharmacological studies demonstrate that Qinjiao plants display a wide range of bioactivities e.g. anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, cardio- and neuro-protective, insecticidal, and anti-influenza effects. The conventional quality control is performed by determination of the concentration of some compounds, e.g., gentiopicroside, or establishment of the fingerprint. In addition to seed propagation, tissue culture technology has been used to address the limited supplies and guarantee the sustainable development of Qinjiao in the experimental scale. CONCLUSIONS: Although the identification of compounds from Qinjiao and demonstration of medicinal uses in vitro and in vivo have been carried out, various other studies on these plants should deserve our more attention. More efforts should be concentrated on the underlying mechanisms of their beneficial bioactivities. The proper toxic evaluation is indispensable to guarantee the safety, efficacy, and eligibility for medical use. To sum up, the summarized achievements could highlight the importance of Qinjiao and provide a solid foundation for scientists not only to further exploit the therapeutic potentials, but also possibly develop novel drugs in the subsequent research.

Five days of integrative body-mind training (IBMT) improves attention and self-regulation in comparison with the same amount of relaxation training. This paper explores the underlying mechanisms of this finding. We measured the physiological and brain changes at rest before, during, and after 5 days of IBMT and relaxation training. During and after training, the IBMT group showed significantly better physiological reactions in heart rate, respiratory amplitude and rate, and skin conductance response (SCR) than the relaxation control. Differences in heart rate variability (HRV) and EEG power suggested greater involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the IBMT group during and after training. Imaging data demonstrated stronger subgenual and adjacent ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity in the IBMT group. Frontal midline ACC theta was correlated with highfrequency HRV, suggesting control by the ACC over parasympathetic activity. These results indicate that after 5 days of training, the IBMT group shows better regulation of the ANS by a ventral midfrontal brain system than does the relaxation group. This changed state probably reflects training in the coordination of body and mind given in the IBMT but not in the control group. These results could be useful in the design of further specific interventions.

Objective To explore the anti-tumor immune function of the Tibetan medicine Rhodiola rosea L. (RRL). Methods Lewis lung cancer-bearing mice were randomly divided into normal saline group, 500 mg/kg RRL ethanol extract treatment group, and 10 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CTX) treatment group. All the groups underwent the treatment for 10 days. The mouse survival rate and tumor inhibitory rate were calculated. Additionally, the numbers of CD4+T and CD8+ T cells of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes as well as the proportion of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the CD4+CD25+Tregs were detected by flow cytometry. Besides, the serum levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and γ-interferon (IFN-γ) in the tumor-bearing mice were examined through ELISA, and the spleen cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) activity was detected by the lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Results Lewis tumor-bearing mice treated with the ethanol extract of RRL showed remarkably enhanced survival rate and inhibited tumor growth. Furthermore, the number of tumor infiltrating CD4+T and CD8+ T cells increased, while the proportion of FOXP3+ Tregs in the CD4+CD25+Tregs showed a declined tendency. Meanwhile, the serum IFN-γ and IL-2 levels in Lewis tumor-bearing mice increased, and the killing capacity of spleen CTL was enhanced. Conclusion The ethanol extract of RRL has a positive role in enhancing the anti-tumor immunity by regulating the number and function of immunocytes.

The current study focused on the pharmacodynamic activity components of Gentianopsis paludosa against ulcerative colitis (UC) fibrosis including symptoms of intestinal diarrhea and inflammatory. Trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid induced UC model rats were gavaged with gradient polarity extracts respectively from ethanol-extract of Gentianopsis paludosa. Masson staining and qRT-PCR methods were respectively used to assess the degree of UC fibrosis and detect the mRNA expressions of collagen I, collagen III, a-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and E-cadherin in colon tissue. Separated by silica gel column chromatography, further screening was conducted until active components appeared. Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy and ultraviolet methods were applied to confirm active components' structures. The results indicated that the expression of collagen I, collagen III and α-SMA mRNA in the colon tissues of acetidin group rats was obviously depressed compared with control groups while E-cadherin displayed just opposite. Dyed in blue indicating UC fibrosis degree, the area of acetidin group was less than that other experimental groups. Four components: (1,8-Dihydroxy-3,7-Dimethoxyxanthones, 1-hydroxy-3,7,8-Trimethoxyxanthones, 1,7-Dihydroxy-3,8-Dimethoxyxanthones and 1-hydroxy-3,7-Dimethoxyxanthones), were obtained from acetidin group and all of which have a significant equivalence to Gentianopsis paludosa on the therapeutic effect of UC fibrosis. Our findings revealed the activity components for clinical application history of Gentianopsis paludosa and provided a preliminary foundation for further new drug research and exploitation.

Sub-acute and chronic toxic effects of total steroidal saponins (TSSN) extracts from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright on various internal organs and biochemical indicators have never been studied before and this study is the first of its kind to demonstrate sub-acute and chronic toxicities of TSSN on dogs. Administration of TSSN extracts at doses up to 3000 mg/Kg daily for 14 days, no biochemical and organ changes were observed on the experimental groups of dogs. Further, chronic toxicity study through oral administration of TSSN extracts at the gradual doses of 50, 250 and 500 mg/Kg for 90 days followed by a 2-week recovery assay revealed absence of significant architectural and morphological changes in internal organs which were confirmed through histopathological examination and merely no significant alteration in the biochemical indicators including hematologic and urine analysis and electrocardiogram compared to the control dogs. This toxicological evaluation came across with the finding that the herbal preparation can be considered as nontoxic and animals could tolerate the extracts at doses up to 500 mg/Kg with LD50 greater than 3000 mg/Kg. It may serve as a preliminary scientific evidence for further therapeutic investigations.