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This study is aimed to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of skimmin, scopolin and umbelliferone in Saussurea hieracioides. Samples were analyzed on a Wondasil C18-WR column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with methanol (A) and water containing 0.1% phosphate (B) as mobile phases for gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength and column temperature were set at 325 nm and 35 degrees C, respectively, and the sample size was 10 microL. The results showed that skimmin, scopolin and umbelliferone were simultaneously achieved within 40 min under the above conditions. A good linearity was observed in the range of 0.18-5.6 microg (r = 1.000 0), 0.060-1.8 microg (r = 0.999 9), 0.032-0.97 microg (r = 0.999 8) for skimmin, scopolin and umbelliferone, respectively, with the average recoveries of 99.16% (RSD = 0.41%), 100.3% (RSD = 0.79%), 102.2% (RSD = 0.87%). The method is simple, accurate and reproducible and can be used for the quality control of S. hieracioides.

The ITS2 barcode was used toidentify Tibetan medicine "Dida", and tosecure its quality and safety in medication. A total of 13 species, 151 experimental samples for the study from the Tibetan Plateau, including Gentianaceae Swertia, Halenia, Gentianopsis, Comastoma, Lomatogonium ITS2 sequences were amplified, and purified PCR products were sequenced. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner V3.7.1. The Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) distances were calculated using MEGA 6.0. The neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees were constructed. There are 31 haplotypes among 231 bp after alignment of all ITS2 sequence haplotypes, and the average G±C content of 61.40%. The NJ tree strongly supported that every species clustered into their own clade and high identification success rate, except that Swertia bifolia and Swertia wolfangiana could not be distinguished from each other based on the sequence divergences. DNA barcoding could be used as a fast and accurate identification method to distinguish Tibetan medicine "Dida" to ensure its safe use.

A capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for simultaneous determination of nine flavonoids, including two rare flavonols, in Tibetan medicine Anaphalis margaritacea. Baseline separation was performed at pH 9.6 with 25 mM Na(2)B(4)O(7) and 10 mM NaH(2)PO(4) buffer solution, 20 kV as driving voltage and 275 nm as detection wavelength. Repeatability tests showed that the R.S.D. of both intra- and inter-day migration times and peak areas were less than 5%. Recovery results ranged from 87.9% to 106.1%. Samples of A. margaritacea extracts were analyzed using the validated method, which is useful for its quality control.

DNA barcoding technique in combination with UFLC analysis technology was used to evaluate the quality of Tibetan medicine Pterocephalus hookeri from species identification and chemical qualitative and other aspects. Hybrid identification was established by DNA barcoding; UFLC-PDA was adopted to analyse fingerprint of different parts of Pterocephali Herba, and SPSS and Grey relation software were used for data analysis. The result showed that DNA barcoding is an accurate and reliable method in origin identification of Pterocephalus hookeri. The compounds in overground is more than underground by analysis of the different part fingerprint by UFLC. The genetic gene may be involved in the secondary metabolites of iridoid glycosides. Pertinence between gene and chemical component, as a new model established, could be suited for quality evaluation and resources protection.

This study is to establish an HPLC fingerprint and quantitative analysis of 3 components of Gyantse Seabuckthorn from different producing areas.The separation was developed on Shimadzu InertSustain C18column (4.6 mm × 250 mm,5 μm) by gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.2% phosphoric acid water as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL•min ⁻¹; the detection wavelength was set at 360 nm and column temperature was set at 30 ℃. The data calculation was performed with similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine(Version 2004A).The fingerprints of 10 batches of Gyantse Seabuckthorn were carried out by similarity comparison, and 12 chromatographic peaks were extracted as the common peaks of fingerprint, of which three main active ingredients were successfully determined. This is the first established fingerprint and multi-component quantitative determination of Gyantse Seabuckthorn by using HPLC. This method has good precision stability and repeatability that could provide basis for quality control and evaluation of Gyantse Seabuckthorn.

INTRODUCTION: Qigong exercise offers a potentially safe, low-cost and effective mind-body rehabilitative intervention for mitigating the problem of gait interruption among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have frequent freezing of gait (FOG) episodes. However, its clinical effects have not been established. This paper describes the trial protocol of evaluating the clinical efficacy of a newly developed Integrated Qigong in improving gait among patients with PD who have FOG.METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A single-blind randomised controlled trial is designed to compare Integrated Qigong and balance training with an attention control. Participants will be patients with mild to moderate PD who experience FOG and are recruited from local communities in Shanghai, China. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of the three groups: Integrated Qigong group, a balance exercise intervention group, or control group. The total number of participants will be 126, and masked assessments will be made at baseline, 12 weeks (end of intervention) and 12-week follow-up. Both Integrated Qigong group and balance training group will receive a group-based exercise intervention that meets three times per week, 60 min in duration, for 12 weeks. The control group will receive a 60 min weekly group session and monthly health education. The primary outcomes are gait parameters (stride length, gait velocity, stride time variability) and occurrence of FOG. The secondary outcomes are postural instability, walking disability, falling, fear of falling and quality of life. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai University of Sport and registered at China Clinical Trial Registry. Participants will sign informed consent prior to the participation of the trial. The findings of the study will be published in peer-reviewed academic journals and disseminated to PD support groups, medical community and media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1800016570.