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ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth., an herb that grows in the alpine and subalpine meadow of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, has been widely used as a folk remedy by the native people for treatment of various inflammatory ailments.AIM OF THE STUDY: In order to isolate and identify the active components of Erigeron multiradiatus for anti-inflammatory activity, a preliminary phytochemical study and a bioassay-guided fractionation and purification process was performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The dry whole plant Erigeron multiradiatus was extracted with 50% ethanol and then separated into CHCl(3), n-BuOH, and aqueous fractions. The anti-inflammatory activities of each fraction were investigated using two in vivo inflammation models. RESULTS: These results exhibited varying degrees of anti-inflammatory activities and the n-BuOH fraction showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activities. The n-BuOH fraction was then subjected to separation and purification using macroporous resins column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 leading to two flavonoids glucuronides identified as scutellarein-7-O-beta-glucuronide and apigenin-7-O-beta-glucuronide. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS identification and quantification of isolated compounds were also performed. CONCLUSION: Scutellarein-7-O-beta-glucuronide and apigenin-7-O-beta-glucuronide were considered as major components and principally responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of Erigeron multiradiatus. Thus the results of our study provide a scientific basis for the utilization of Erigeron multiradiatus in traditional Tibetan medicine.
Because of the morphological and macroscopic similarity, many species of Erigeron and Aster (Asteraceae) are confusable and usually used under the same name "Meiduoluomi" in traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM). To find an easy, quick, and reliable method to authenticate and distinguish the eight main medicinal plants of these species, the light microscope was used to reveal the morphoanatomic details. The fixed, sectioned, and stained plant materials and epidermis materials were studied by microscopic techniques. The results of the microscopic features are systematically described and illustrated, and comparison parameters are presented. Furthermore, a key to the eight species of "Meiduoluomi" was constructed. Microscopy can be unambiguously used to authenticate and distinguish the eight main species of TTM "Meiduoluomi.";
Because of the morphological and macroscopic similarity, many species of <i>Erigeron</i> and <i>Aster</i> (Asteraceae) are confusable and usually used under the same name “Meiduoluomi” in traditional Tibetan medicine (TTM). To find an easy, quick, and reliable method to authenticate and distinguish the eight main medicinal plants of these species, the light microscope was used to reveal the morphoanatomic details. The fixed, sectioned, and stained plant materials and epidermis materials were studied by microscopic techniques. The results of the microscopic features are systematically described and illustrated, and comparison parameters are presented. Furthermore, a key to the eight species of “Meiduoluomi” was constructed. Microscopy can be unambiguously used to authenticate and distinguish the eight main species of TTM “Meiduoluomi.” Microsc. Res. Tech., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Zuota is regarded as the king of Tibetan medicine. However, due to the confidentiality of this precious medicine, the scientific characterization of Zuota is very scarce, which limits the pharmacology and biosafety studies of Zuota. Herein, we collected four different Zuota samples from Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, and Sichuan and characterized them by multiple techniques. Our results showed that Zuota was mainly an inorganic mixture of HgS, sulfur, and graphite. Morphologically, Zuota samples were composed of nanoparticles, which further aggregated into microsized particles. Chemically, the majorities of Zuota were S and Hg (in the forms of HgS and pure sulfur). All samples contained pure sulfur with orthorhombic crystalline. Zuota from Qinghai province had different HgS crystalline, namely, hexagonal crystalline. The others were all face-centered cubic crystalline. Carbon in Zuota NPs was in the form of graphite. The implication to future studies of Zuota was discussed.
Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-mazz (EB), Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth (EM), and Aster brachytrichus Franch (AB), confused under the vernacular name "meiduoluomi" by native people and traditional healers, have been used for the treatment of meningitis, polyneuritis, hepatitis, adenolymphitis, and enteronitis in traditional Tibetan medicine. In this study, the antiinflammatory activity of methanol extracts of all three plants was investigated in the xylene-induced ear edema model, carrageenan-induced paw edema model, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. It was found that the methanolic extracts of both EB and EM had strong inhibitory effects on the acute phase of inflammation in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. On the other hand, the methanolic extract of EM showed stronger effects than those of EB in xylene-induced ear edema. In the chronic test, the methanolic extracts of EB and EM resulted in a significant reduction in granuloma weight in rats. In addition, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was strongly reduced in the EB-treated and EM-treated groups, which indicated that EB and EM can inhibit certain inflammatory modulator factors that cause neutrophil aggregation in inflamed tissue, e.g., nuclear factor-kappaB. However, the methanolic extracts of AB had no antiinflammatory effects in the tested models and MPO assay. The similar effects of EM and EB in tested models provided some scientific basis for the traditional usage of meiduoluomi in inflammatory disease. However, the results also suggest that further study is needed to investigate the antiinflammatory profile of AB and provide a scientific basis for the use of AB in inflammatory diseases.
Erigeron breviscapus and erigeron multiradiatus, belonging to compositae, have been widely used as "meiduoluomi" in traditional Tibetan medicine for treatment of heat-clearing and detoxicating. However, it is difficult to distinguish them because of similarity of morphology. Therefore, the chemotaxonomy method was established. FTIR fingerprint spectra of E. breviscapus and E. multiradiatus samples from 13 geographical origins were studied. The results demonstrated that they could be divided into 2 classes with principal component analysis (PCA). The classification was well correlated to their gene, geographical origins and weather. In the same class, the chemical components are similar to each other, which can be considered as the criterion for evaluating their quality. The results showed that their infrared spectra characteristic of the same species was similar in the range of 4 000-450 cm(-1), but varied significantly for different species. The method is rapid and simple, and could be applied to evaluate the quality of this traditional medicine.
Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth is a traditional Tibetan medicine herb long used to treat various diseases related to inflammation. Our previous phytochemical studies on E. multiradiatus resulted in the isolation of scutellarin, which is a known flavone glucuronide with comprehensive pharmacological actions. In present study, we investigated the inhibition action of scutellarin on high glucose-induced vascular inflammation in human endothelial cells (ECV304 cells). Consistent with previous reports, exposure of ECV304 cells to high glucose for 24 h caused an increase of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and promoted cell adhesion between monocyte and ECV304 cells. However, pretreatment with scutellarin (0.1 and 1 microM) reversed these effects in a concentration-dependent manner. Scutellarin was able to inhibit the activation of NF-kappaB induced by high glucose in ECV304 cells. Furthermore, although oral administration of scutellarin (10 and 50 mg/kg) did not produce significant antihyperglycemic action, it lowered the serum MCP-1 levels significantly in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Therefore, our results suggest that scutellarin has anti-inflammation effect that may afford some protection against hyperglycemia-induced vascular inflammatory both in vitro and in vivo.
Objective: To establish an HPLC-ELSD fingerprint of the whole herbs of Morina nepalensis and perform the correlation analysis of chemical components of the herb and nitric oxide (NO) production inhibition.; Method: HPLC-ELSD assay was performed to evaluate 10 batches of M. nepalensis herbs. The chromatographic conditions were as following: Eclipse XDB C18 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm), water (A) and acetonitrile (B) as a gradient mobile phases, flow rate 1.0 mL x min(-1), and column temperature at 35 degress C. Evaporative light-detection conditions: atomization temperature at 104 degrees C, the flow rate of N2 2.8 L x min(-1) and 10 microL sample injection. Chromatographic fingerprint was developed, and the inhibition activity of production of NO in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophages was also analyzed. The similarity and correlation analysis between the HPLC-ELSD fingerprints and NO production inhibition were carried out by PLS method.; Result: The common mode for M. nepalensis herb fingerprint was established, including 15 common characteristic peaks. Among them, 7 peaks were positively correlated with the NO production inhibition. According to the assessment on the similarity of 10 batches of samples, a similarity of over 0.90 were shown in HPLC-ELSD fingerprint and all samples were separated into two groups.; Conclusion: This method can be used to assess the quality of M. nepalensis, which provides a reliable method for scientific assessment and quality control.;
Zuotais regarded as the king of Tibetan medicine. However, the major starting material ofZuotais mercury, which is one very toxic heavy metal. This has aroused serious doubts on the biosafety ofZuotacontaining drugs. In this study, we quantified the Hg contents in fourZuotasamples, monitored the release of Hg in simulated gastric/intestinal juice and evaluated their cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that the Hg contents inZuotasamples were in the range of 566–676 mg/g. Fortunately, the release of Hg fromZuotasamples was very low in simulated gastric juice, and much lower in simulated intestinal juice. Direct contact ofZuotawith Caco-2 cells led to dose-dependent cytotoxicity, including activity loss and membrane leakage. The toxicity was closely related to apoptosis, because the caspase 3/7 levels of Caco-2 cells increased after the exposure toZuota. Interestingly,Zuotasamples inhibited the oxidative stress at low concentrations, but the toxicity could be relived by antioxidants. The possible toxicity should be attributed to the cellular uptake ofZuotaparticulates. Beyond the cytotoxicity, significant differences amongZuotasamples from different institutions were observed, suggesting that the preparation process ofZuotahad meaningful influence of its biosafety. The implications to the safety and clinical applications ofZuotaare discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]