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OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for determination of 10 ingredients such as gentiopicroside, sweroside, and mangiferin in India swertia, and settle the index components and their limits.METHOD: By Welch materials AQ-C18 column, determination was conducted by the gradient elution with methanol and 0.4% formic acid as mobile phase, with column temperature 30 degrees C, flow rate at 1.0 mL x min(-1), and 254 nm as the detection wavelength. RESULT: The linear relatives of 10 ingredients were good. The method showed the high precision and good reproducibility, and recovery rates were between 97% and 103%. The ingredients of market com-modities varied greatly. CONCLUSION: This method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to the determination of the main ingredients in India Swertia. Sweroside and mango glycosides were suggested as the index components for determination in Jia Di (Swertia chirayita), and their content limits are not less than 0.1%, 0.3%, respectively.

OBJECTIVE: To establish the HPLC fingerprint for Halenia elliptica herbs, a traditional Tibetan medicine, in order to study constituents contained in H. elliptica from different habitats and compare their differences.METHOD: HPLC analysis was made on a Welchrom-C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The wavelength was detected as 265 nm, the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the column temperature was 40 degrees C. The software for chromatographic fingerprint was applied to analyze the similarity. And principal component analysis was conducted. RESULT: Twelve common chromatographic peaks were identified by fingerprint, showing a low similarity in constituent and variety. The significant difference in the proportion between xanthones and aglycones in each batch of herbs indicated no notable correlation between constituent characteristics and geographic locations of habitats. CONCLUSION: The method is so simple, exclusive, stable and highly repeatable that it can provide reference for identification and quality assessment of H. elliptica herbs.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the medicinal reasonableness and resource utilization of Dida from different species.METHOD: With common characteristic absorption peaks of HPLC fingerprints and SPSS cluster, the composition similarity of Dida from different species was evaluated. RESULT: The composition similarity of HPLC fingerprints of 33 Dida samples from 15 species and 1 variety originated from Swertia, Halenia, Gentianopsis, Lomatogonium was difference. The original species can be clustered into four groups by the relative area of 10 common characteristic peaks of HPLC fingerprints. The compositions of four different genera are quite different. CONCLUSION: Because of containing iridoids, xanthones, and triterpenes which have liver protection and cholagogue functions, all of species from Swertia, Halenia, Gentianopsis and Lomatogonium in Gentianaceae are classified as Dida in Tibetan medicine. According to the composition difference among different species, the HPLC fingerprints established for Dida from different source are an effective means to identify nd control the quality of Dida.

The resource of Sinopodophyllum emodi in Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan province were surveyed by the ways of documents, interview, quadrat and market investigation. The results indicated that S. emodi were mainly distributed in central part from Taibai Shan of Shanxi province along the middle and high mountain on either side of Hengduan mountain which from north to south and in Tibetan plateau of China, the suitable eco-environment of S. emodi was dominated by valleys, wet forests and low bush-woods vegetation which comparatively dry on plateau with the altitude focused on 1 5004 500 meters, and the distribution density of simple alpine meadow was relatively lower. Illumination, water, soil, temperature and altitude had significant influences on the growth, distribution and reserves of S. emodi from different angles. In recent years, there was sharp increase of market requirement in Xiaoyelian (fruit) which were used in Tibetan medicine and the underground part which was used for the extraction of podophyllotoxin, excess collection of the underground part was the primary cause of the rapid decreasing resource of S. emodi. It is suggested that the management of rational collection should be strengthen and the development of culturing and production should be meanwhile accelerated.

Integrating textual criticism literatures with field survey, the name, classification and botanical originals of breeds of Tibetan medicine "Dida" were discussed in this paper. The results showed that it's very intricate and confusion in the names, breeds and botanical originals of "Dida", and those were the key restricting factors resulting in shortfall and difficult formulation in quality standard of "Dida". The similar situations are existing universally in ethnodrugs, and reflecting the necessity and urgency to collate ethnodrug breeds. On the other hand, Because of the morphologic description on the botanical origins of drug was often simple in the ancient literatures, and in most cases, the botanical origins of the drug were difficult to identify accurately on the basis of the literatures. So, in the collating the breeds, it's necessary to follow the principle of "according to the ancient literatures but no rigidly", and to pay attention to the historical vicissitude of the drug breeds and origins, and the survey of present resources and clinical using, draw actively on outcome of chemical and biological active researches. That inherited the characteristics and advantages of ethnodrugs, and promoted them them modernization.