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<br>Display Omitted<br>• Coupling reaction of haloquinolines with sulfonyl chlorides in water. • Excellent regioselectivity and scale-up synthesis. • Base-, extra activator- and organic solvent-free conditions. • In situ generated zinc bis-sulphinate as sulfone reagent and activator.<br>A simple and efficient method has been developed for construction of sulfonylated quinolines via coupling of haloquinolines and sulfonyl chlorides in water. The present methodology provides an attractive approach to various sulfonylated quinolines in moderate to good yields with favorable functional group tolerance, which has the advantages of operation simplicity, readily available starting materials, excellent regioselectivity, scale-up synthesis, and organic solvent-free conditions.
Background Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf is one of the plants generically known as rhubarb, a culinary vegetable that has long been used as a herbal remedy both in China and Europe. Increasing demand for rhubarb has triggered the overexploitation of Rh. tanguticum. Cultivation is therefore necessary for quality control and protection of wild resources. Nitrogen fertilizer plays an important role in cultivation. This study aimed to explore how nitrogen fertilizer affects the growth and quality of rhubarb on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Results Nitrogen fertilizer promoted growth but had no significant influence on the active compounds of Rh. tanguticum. Generally, the N2 (150 kg ha(-1)) and N3 (225 kg ha(-1)) levels showed the most improved growth indexes, with no significant differences between them. The growth index and the amounts of eight of the nine studied active compounds in Rh. tanguticum increased from each year to the next and differed among growth stages. The contents of the active compounds were higher at the green stage and lower at the growth stage, which was opposite to the seasonal trends in root dry matter ratio. Gallic acid levels decreased with the growth of the plant. Conclusion The N2 level (150 kg ha(-1)) was the recommended nitrogen fertilizer level in this study. It was revealed that seasonal changes rather than nitrogen fertilizer influenced active compounds in the root of Rh. tanguticum. (c) 2018 Society of Chemical Industry
<br>Display Omitted<br>• Optimal dosages of phosphate and potassium fertilizer on <b>R. tanguticum</b> were firstly explored. • The U-shaped fluctuation curve of total anthraquinone content is firstly proposed. • Optimization of chromatographic columns was firstly proposed when detecting index constituents. • Total anthraquinone content of two-year-old plants had reached <b>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</b> standard.<br>The dried root of <b>Rheum tanguticum</b> plays an important role in formulations and prescriptions in traditional Chinese medicine and Kampo medicine. Due to over-exploitation, <b>R. tanguticum</b> resources have decreased sharply in recent years. The main objective of our investigation (a 3-year field experiment) was to explore the effect of different levels of phosphorus (superphosphate) and potassium (potassium sulfate) fertilizer on the biomass (root fresh weight, root increment, and root dry weight), yield, dry matter content, and anthraquinone content of this plant at different harvesting stages (green stage, growth stage, and wilting stage) under alpine conditions. The root fresh weight and root dry weight increased significantly at the wilting stage following treatment with 90 kg P2O5/ha (100% and 59%, respectively) in 2016 and 75 kg K2O/ha (43% and 41%, respectively) in 2015 compared to the control. The yield of root dry weight obtained from three-year-old <b>R. tanguticum</b> plants was 9200 kg/ha when 90 kg P2O5/ha of phosphorus fertilizer was applied, and 10,400 kg/ha when 75 kg K2O/ha of potassium fertilizer was applied. This yield reached a maximum at the wilting stage. The anthraquinone content of two-year-old <b>R. tanguticum</b> plants had already reached the standard level of the <b>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</b>; however, three-year-old plants had double the anthraquinone content of two-year-old plants. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers had no obvious influence on the anthraquinone content of <b>R. tanguticum</b> at the same harvesting stage.
Traditional Tibetan medicine provides an abundant source of knowledge on human ailments and their treatment. As such, it is necessary to explore their active single compounds used to treat these ailments to discover lead compounds with good pharmacologic properties. In this present work, animal medicine, Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi extracts have been separated using a two-dimensional preparative chromatographic method to obtain single compounds with high purity as part of the following pharmacological research. Five high-purity cyclic dipeptides from chromatography work were studied for their dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitory activity on recombinant human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase enzyme and compound Fr. 1-4 was found to contain satisfying inhibition activity. The molecular modeling study suggests that the active compound Fr. 1-4 may have a teriflunomide-like binding mode. Then, the energy decomposition study suggests that the hydrogen bond between Fr. 1-4 and Arg136 can improve the binding mode to indirectly increase the van der Waals binding energy. All the results above together come to the conclusion that the 2, 5-diketopiperazine structure group can interact with the polar residues well in the active pocket using electrostatic power. If some proper hydrophobic groups can be added to the sides of the 2, 5-diketopiperazine group, it is believed that better 2, 5-diketopiperazine dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors will be found in the future.
Animal medicine is an important part in traditional Tibetan medicine. However, information about the chemical composition of animal medicine is very limited, and there is a lack of comprehensive chromatographic purification methods. In the present work, animal medicine Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi was taken as an example and a novel two-dimensional preparative chromatographic method was established for the preparation of single compounds with high purity from the extract of Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi. The first-dimension preparation was carried on a DAISO Silica prep column, and ten fractions were obtained from the 112.3 g crude sample within 12 injections. A diol prep column used in nonaqueous mobile phase was selected for the second-dimension preparation. The purity of the compounds isolated from the crude extract was >98%, which indicated that the method built in this work was efficient to manufacture single compounds of high purity from the extract of Osteon Myospalacem Baileyi. Additionally, this method showed great potential in the purification of weakly polar chemicals and it could act as a good example in the purification of other traditional animal medicines.
<br>Display Omitted<br>• Response surface methodology was applied to optimize supercritical fluid extraction conditions of alantolactone and isoalantolactone. • The optimized extraction conditions were pressure 20 MPa, extraction temperature 50 °C, carbon dioxide flow rate of 17 × 10−5 kg/s and extraction time of 40 min. • Freezing purification greatly improve the content of the target compounds by 30.7 wt.%.<br><b>Inula racemose</b> Hook.f. (<b>I</b>. <b>racemosa</b>) is a traditional herbal medicine with strong anti-fungal and anti-inflammation activity while alantolactone (AL) and isoalantolactone (IAL) are the major active compounds of this plant. The aim of this paper was obtaining AL and IAL from the radix of <b>I</b>. <b>racemosa</b> by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) which was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Our results showed that, the optimal conditions for maximum extraction efficiency were as follows: pressure 20 MPa, extraction temperature 50 °C, carbon dioxide (CO2) flow rate of 17.0 × 10−5 kg/s and extraction time of 40 min. Subsequently, an efficient freezing method was developed for purification of AL and IAL in the crude extract obtained from SFE. After purification by freezing, the total content of the target compounds was greatly improved by 30.7%. The results demonstrate that SFE coupled with freezing would be a powerful technique for extraction and purification of AL and IAL from the radix of <b>I</b>. <b>racemosa</b>.
The regulation of postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels is an effective therapeutic method to treat diabetes and prevent diabetes-related complications. Resveratroloside is a monoglucosylated form of stilbene that is present in red wine, grapes, and several traditional medicinal plants. In our study, the effect of resveratroloside on reducing PBG was studied in vitro and in vivo. In comparison to the starch treatment alone, the oral administration of resveratroloside-starch complexes significantly inhibited the PBG increase in a dose-dependent pattern in normal and diabetic mice. The PBG level treated with resveratrol (30 mg/kg) was not lower than that of resveratroloside. Further analyses demonstrated that resveratroloside strongly and effectively inhibited α-glucosidase, with an 50% inhibitory concentration value of 22.9 ± 0.17 μM, and its inhibition was significantly stronger than those of acarbose and resveratrol (264 ± 3.27 and 108 ± 2.13 μM). Moreover, a competitive inhibition mechanism of resveratroloside on α-glucosidase was determined by enzyme kinetic assays and molecular docking experiments. The molecular docking of resveratroloside with α-glucosidase demostrated the competitive inhibitory effect of resveratroloside, which occupies the catalytic site and forms strong hydrogen bonds with the residues of α-glucosidase. Resveratrol was also determined to be a competitive inhibition mechanism on α-glucosidase by enzyme kinetic assays and molecular docking experiments. This study suggested that resveratroloside had the ability to regulate PBG levels and can be considered a potential agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Five phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), forsythoside B, verbascoside, alyssonoside, isoverbascoside, and leucosceptoside B, were isolated and purified from Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with macroporous resin (MR) column separation. In the present study, the two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (13:3:10, v/v/v) was used for HSCCC separation. A total of 27 mg of forsythoside B, 41 mg of verbascoside, 29 mg of alyssonoside, 23 mg of isoverbascoside, and 13 mg of leucosceptoside B with purities of 97.7, 99.2, 99.5, 99.3, and 97.3%, respectively, were obtained in a one-step separation within 4 h from 150 mg of crude extract. The recoveries of the five PhGs after MR-HSCCC separation were 74.5, 76.5, 72.5, 76.4, and 77.0%, respectively. The chemical structures of all five compounds were identified by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy.
Four iridoid glucosides, shanzhiside methyl ester, phloyoside II, chlorotuberside, and penstemonoside, were isolated and purified from an herbal medicinal plant for the first time by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (5:14:12, v/v/v). A total of 37mg of shanzhiside methyl ester, 29mg of phloyoside II, 27mg of chlorotuberside, and 21mg of penstemonoside with the purity of 99.2%, 98.5%, 97.3%, and 99.3%, respectively, were obtained in one-step separation within 4h from 150mg of crude extract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of separation and purification of iridoid glucosides from natural sources by HSCCC. The chemical structures of all the four compounds were identified by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR.