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Porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (PHCMs) fabricated from yeast cells by hydrothermal treatment have stimulated interest because of their outstanding chemical and physical properties. Herein, the functionalizations of PHCMs by further coating of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles onto the surface were carried out. The structure of resulted α-Fe2O3@PHCMs products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and BET specific surface area measurements (BET), respectively. Its promising application was evaluated by the Fenton-like degradation of fluorescent whitening agent-VBL from aqueous solutions.<br>In this work, novel α-Fe2O3@porous hollow carbonaceous microspheres (α-Fe2O3@PHCMs) were synthesized through a combination of hydrothermal method and calcinations route and achieved excellent removal efficiency for fluorescent whitening Agent-VBL.<br><br>Display Omitted<br>• The hybrid α-Fe2O3@ porous hollow microspheres (PHCMs) were firstly fabricated. • The formation mechanism of α-Fe2O3@PHCMs microspheres was proposed and verified. • Dithizone played a key role in the synthesis of α-Fe2O3@PHCMs composites. • A favorable removal for the fluorescent whitening agent-VBL were achieved.
Glucose carbon with uniform diameter was successfully anchored by TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles via a facile low-temperature hydrothermal process independent of surfactants or external forces. The resultant TiO<sub>2</sub>@glucose carbon composite (TiO<sub>2</sub>@GCs) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The elimination of direct deep blue (DDB) from aqueous solution by adsorption onto TiO<sub>2</sub>@GCs was investigated in the up-flow fixed-bed columns. The effects of the influent concentration (10-30 mg L<sup>−1</sup>), flow rate (3-5 mL min<sup>−1</sup>), bed depth (1.0-2.0 cm) and pH (1.0-9.0) were investigated. Breakthrough time and adsorption capacity of the fixed-bed increased with increasing bed depth, whereas decreased with the increase in initial concentration, bed depth and solution pH values. The experimental data was in good agreement with both Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model. The employed bed saturated with DDB was readily regenerated through a simple regeneration process with UV irradiation for 1 h. Furthermore, the adsorption-regeneration process was conducted for six cycles and no major decrease of regeneration efficiency was observed for the first three cycles. One possible mechanism for regenerating dye-loaded TiO<sub>2</sub>@GCs was proposed. The verifying experiment found that hydroxyl radicals and superoxide ions significantly affected the regeneration of employed TiO<sub>2</sub>@GCs bed.