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OBJECTIVE: To provide a reference for the standardization of Tibetan medicine.METHOD: Investigating the hospital preparations , Tibetan formulated products, and the literature recorded preparations in the Tibetan, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces. Moreover, the varieties, original bases and standard conditions of these preparations were analyzed. According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Tibetan medicine part of ministerial standard, Tibetan medicine standards and related monographs and literatures of Tibetan medicine. RESULT: About 502 various of herbs were used in 711 hospital preparations from 40 medical institutions, Tibetan formulated products from Tibetan pharmaceutical factories, and 439 literature recorded preparations. About 154 herbs were used in more than 10 preparations, while most of them were Tibetan endemic species. About 416 medicinal varieties have the original documented basis, including 287 botanicals, 78 animal medicines, 51 mineral medicines, involving a total of 94 families, 261 genus and 643 species of botanical origin (including species of the next grade), 35 families, 52 genera and 61 species of the animal origin (including species of the next grade). About 122 varieties of herbs were cross-used in the traditional Chinese medicine and Tibetan medicine, about 80% of Tibetan medicinal varieties are produced in the Tibetan Areas of Tibet Plateau. About 293 medicinal varieties were contained in the above standards. Most of the herb's standards only contains character, indentification, and examination, except for 8 varieties which were recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010) as Tibetan medicine. CONCLUSION: This study of quality standard of Tibetan medicine should have an emphasis on the general varieties, especially the study on the arrangement research and the efficacious material basis of the varieties and the original, as well as term standardization of the National Medicine.
In this paper, an analysis was made on the varieties and standards of labiatae medicinal plants used in Tibetan medicine. The results showed 71 species of labiatae plants in 21 genera (including varieties) recorded in relevant literatures, involving 44 varieties of medicinal materials. Specifically, seven species (9.9%) were intersected with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), 19 varieties (43%) were recorded in Chinese medicinal material standards at all levels, and 27 species (38%) were source plants. In Tibetan medicine standards and literatures, there are great differences between Tibetan names and translated Chinese names and among varieties of source plants. Apart from a few of varieties intersected with traditional Chinese medicines had complete standards and regulations in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, most of species only had characters, microscopic, physical and chemical identifications in Standards Issued by Ministry of Health-Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Standard and local standards. Therefore, the Tibetan medicinal material variety-source specification and quality standard system shall be promoted on the basis of literatures research, investigations for resources and current applications and modern pharmaceutical studies.
In this paper, the domestic varieties and quality standard of Leguminosae medicinal plants used in Tibetan medicine were analyzed. The results showed that there were 36 genera and 142 species (including varieties), as well as 64 medicinal materials varieties of Leguminosae plants were recorded in relevant literatures. In relevant Tibetan standards and literatures, there are great differences in varieties, sources, used parts, and efficacy of medicinal plants. Among them, about 38.0% (including 54 species) of the endemic plants, about 25.4% (including 36 species) of the original plants have medicinal standard legal records, except 9 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine general quality standard more fairly completed, the most varieties have only description about characters, identification, etc. Therefore it is necessary to reinforce study for the herbal textual, resources and the use present situation, chemical components and biological activity, quality standard, medicinal terms specification, to promote establishment of quality standard system for variety-terminologies-sources of Tibetan medicinal plants.
In this paper, the varieties and origin of Primulaceae plants that used in Tibetan medicine were analyzed. The results showed that there were 3 genera and 44 species (including the varieties) of Primulaceae plants were recorded in the relevant literatures. Among them, 17 varieties were recorded in Tibetan names, 24 varieties were recorded in Chinese names and 1 variety was used in both of them. In current quality criteria of standards at all levels in China country, 6 varieties were recorded in Tibetan names and 6 original plants were involved, which were 35% and 14% of them respectively. Seventeen varieties were recorded in Chinese name and 7 original plants were involved, which were 30% and 16% of them respectively. In Tibetan medicine standards and literatures, there were big differences between Tibetan names and Chinese names which were translated from Tibetan names and its original plants. There were only regulations of morphological identification and microscopic authentication, so the standards were very inadequate. Therefore, through literatures research, resources and current situation investigations, combining the research and specification of the name and original of Tibetan medicine, the level of normalization and standardization could be enhanced, the stable and controllable safety and utility in clinical medication could be ensured to promote advancement of industry technology Tibetan medicine.
In this paper, the popular domestic varieties and quality standard of Scrophulariaceae plants used in Tibetan medicine were analyzed. The results showed that there were 11 genera and 99 species (including varieties), as well as 28 medicinal materials varieties of Scrophulariaceae plants were recorded in the relevant literatures. In relevant Tibetan standards arid literatures, there are great differences in varieties, sources, parts, and efficacies of medicinal plant. Among them, about 41.4% (including 41 species) of endemic plants, about 15.2% (including 15 species) of the original plants have medicinal standard legal records, except the medicinal materials of Scrophalaria ningpoensis, Lagotis brevituba, Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Veronica eriogyne general, most varieties have not completed quality standard. Consequently it is necessary to reinforce the herbal textual, resources and the use present situation investigation, the effects of the species resources material foundation and biological activity, quality standard, specification the medical terms of the plants, and promote Tibetan medicinal vareties-terminologies-sources such as the criterion and quality standard system for enriching the varieties of Tibetan medicinal materials and Chinese medicinal resources.
OBJECTIVE: To further investigate and discuss the cause of species endangerment, the status and present problem of conservation of traditional Tibetan medicine in China.METHOD: Previous relevant investigations and literatures were summed up in the field. The present situation of conservation of traditional Tibetan medicine was analyzed. RESULT: The status of endangered resources, cause of species endangerment, the conserving status and conserving measures etc were elaborated. The classification was made and suggestion of species conservation of traditional Tibetan medicine were put forward. CONCLUSION: The endangered species conservation of traditional Tibetan medicine was carried out by building protective area of endangered species resources and plant garden, setting up germplasm bank, developing the domestication and cultivation of Tibetan medicinal herbs most in use, strengthening the investigation and study of endangered species, launching exchange and cooperation of conservation techniques on endangered species, enhancing the protective awareness of endangered species traditional Tibetan medicine etc. By so doing we can facilitate the sustainable development of traditional Tibetan medicine in China.
OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for determination of 10 ingredients such as gentiopicroside, sweroside, and mangiferin in India swertia, and settle the index components and their limits.METHOD: By Welch materials AQ-C18 column, determination was conducted by the gradient elution with methanol and 0.4% formic acid as mobile phase, with column temperature 30 degrees C, flow rate at 1.0 mL x min(-1), and 254 nm as the detection wavelength. RESULT: The linear relatives of 10 ingredients were good. The method showed the high precision and good reproducibility, and recovery rates were between 97% and 103%. The ingredients of market com-modities varied greatly. CONCLUSION: This method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to the determination of the main ingredients in India Swertia. Sweroside and mango glycosides were suggested as the index components for determination in Jia Di (Swertia chirayita), and their content limits are not less than 0.1%, 0.3%, respectively.
OBJECTIVE: To establish the HPLC fingerprint for Halenia elliptica herbs, a traditional Tibetan medicine, in order to study constituents contained in H. elliptica from different habitats and compare their differences.METHOD: HPLC analysis was made on a Welchrom-C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) with water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The wavelength was detected as 265 nm, the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the column temperature was 40 degrees C. The software for chromatographic fingerprint was applied to analyze the similarity. And principal component analysis was conducted. RESULT: Twelve common chromatographic peaks were identified by fingerprint, showing a low similarity in constituent and variety. The significant difference in the proportion between xanthones and aglycones in each batch of herbs indicated no notable correlation between constituent characteristics and geographic locations of habitats. CONCLUSION: The method is so simple, exclusive, stable and highly repeatable that it can provide reference for identification and quality assessment of H. elliptica herbs.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the medicinal reasonableness and resource utilization of Dida from different species.METHOD: With common characteristic absorption peaks of HPLC fingerprints and SPSS cluster, the composition similarity of Dida from different species was evaluated. RESULT: The composition similarity of HPLC fingerprints of 33 Dida samples from 15 species and 1 variety originated from Swertia, Halenia, Gentianopsis, Lomatogonium was difference. The original species can be clustered into four groups by the relative area of 10 common characteristic peaks of HPLC fingerprints. The compositions of four different genera are quite different. CONCLUSION: Because of containing iridoids, xanthones, and triterpenes which have liver protection and cholagogue functions, all of species from Swertia, Halenia, Gentianopsis and Lomatogonium in Gentianaceae are classified as Dida in Tibetan medicine. According to the composition difference among different species, the HPLC fingerprints established for Dida from different source are an effective means to identify nd control the quality of Dida.
Based on literature data, related specimens, commercial samples and field investigation, botanical origin of "bolingguazi" was clarified. Boling guazi was found to be used as a Tibetan medicine in China from 8th century, it was derived from Herpetospermum pedunculosum of cucurbitaceae, and main species of bolingguazi used in most areas of China were H. pednculosura, while seeds of Momordica charantia, Thladiantha setispina and M. cohinchinensis were also available in some areas of China.
Chrysosplenium nudicaule,Tibetan name " Yajima",is recorded as an effective medicine for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases by Tibetan Pharmacopoeia published in the past dynasties,but its traditional efficacy has not yet been investigated by means of modern pharmacological research methods. In this paper,the protective effect of extract of C. nudicaule(ECN) on liver injury in mice was observed by using the mice model of intrahepatic cholestasis(IC) induced by α-naphthyl isothiocyanate(ANIT) and the possible mechanism by which ECN work as the therapeutic agent was discussed. The results showed that the serum levels of AST,ALT,ALP,DBIL,TBIL and TBA of the model mice were notably reduced in dose-dependent manner(P<0. 01,P<0. 05). The activity of SOD and GSH-Px in the liver homogenate of mice was increased,while the content of MDA was decreased(P<0. 01,P<0. 05).Pathological examination of liver in mice showed that ECN could improve the pathological changes of liver tissue in mice. The mRNA expression level of genes related to bile acid metabolism were detected by RT-PCR and the results suggested that ECN could significantly increase the expression of genes such as BSEP,FXR and MRP2(P<0. 01,P<0. 05),meanwhile significantly reduce the expression of CYP7 A1(P<0. 01,P<0. 05). These results confirmed the protective effect of ECN on intrahepatic cholestasis-induced liver injury in mice,and indicated that the mechanism may be related to activating FXR and its target genes,reducing bile acid synthesis and increasing bile acid excretion. This study provides a modern pharmacological basis for the clinical application of Yajima in Tibetan medicine.
The resource of Sinopodophyllum emodi in Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan province were surveyed by the ways of documents, interview, quadrat and market investigation. The results indicated that S. emodi were mainly distributed in central part from Taibai Shan of Shanxi province along the middle and high mountain on either side of Hengduan mountain which from north to south and in Tibetan plateau of China, the suitable eco-environment of S. emodi was dominated by valleys, wet forests and low bush-woods vegetation which comparatively dry on plateau with the altitude focused on 1 5004 500 meters, and the distribution density of simple alpine meadow was relatively lower. Illumination, water, soil, temperature and altitude had significant influences on the growth, distribution and reserves of S. emodi from different angles. In recent years, there was sharp increase of market requirement in Xiaoyelian (fruit) which were used in Tibetan medicine and the underground part which was used for the extraction of podophyllotoxin, excess collection of the underground part was the primary cause of the rapid decreasing resource of S. emodi. It is suggested that the management of rational collection should be strengthen and the development of culturing and production should be meanwhile accelerated.
Integrating textual criticism literatures with field survey, the name, classification and botanical originals of breeds of Tibetan medicine "Dida" were discussed in this paper. The results showed that it's very intricate and confusion in the names, breeds and botanical originals of "Dida", and those were the key restricting factors resulting in shortfall and difficult formulation in quality standard of "Dida". The similar situations are existing universally in ethnodrugs, and reflecting the necessity and urgency to collate ethnodrug breeds. On the other hand, Because of the morphologic description on the botanical origins of drug was often simple in the ancient literatures, and in most cases, the botanical origins of the drug were difficult to identify accurately on the basis of the literatures. So, in the collating the breeds, it's necessary to follow the principle of "according to the ancient literatures but no rigidly", and to pay attention to the historical vicissitude of the drug breeds and origins, and the survey of present resources and clinical using, draw actively on outcome of chemical and biological active researches. That inherited the characteristics and advantages of ethnodrugs, and promoted them them modernization.
This paper is in order to discussion with the composition and characteristics of Tibetan medicine plant resources, and promote the reasonable protection and utilization of the resources of Tibetan materia medica. Statistical analysis of species, distributions, and others of Chinese endemic seed plant from Tibetan medicine plants and usually used in the clinic of Tibetan medicine. The results showed that there are 523 species (25%) of Chinese endemic seed plant, belonging to 65 families and 162 genera, in about 2 000 varieties of Tibetan medicine plants recorded in relevant literatures. There are 180 Chinese endemic seed plant species (28%) belonging to 42 families and 72 genera from 625 medicine plants usually used in the clinic of Tibetan medicine. Specifically, the most of these Chinese endemic seed plant species are characteristic crude drug used in Tibetan medicine, and mainly or only distributed in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. And a few species of them were intersected with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and other ethnic medicines. In addition, about 10% are listed in China Species Red List. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most abundant areas of Areal-types of the Chinese endemic seed plant. This is the biological and ecological reason formation the characteristics of Tibetan medicine plant resources. Therefore, strengthen the research of Chinese endemic seed plants used in Tibetan medicine is great significance for the reasonable protection and utilization of Tibetan medicine plant resources.