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In this article the classics textual research to the origin of "Zha-xun" was carried out, the ethnobotanical research methods, the origin of visits, key informant interviews, sample collection and textual research were applied in the research. The results showed that the hypothesis of Zha-xun"s origin mainly included "source of mine", "source of feces", "source of monkey menstrual blood" in China. There were "source of fossil", "source of the plant secretion" abroad. The authors had interviewed the villagers at origin, herbalists, Tibetan doctors, herb dealers, foreign scholars for a total of 18 people, and collecting 45 batches medicinal materials. According to ancient Tibetan classics textual and Tibetan medicine doctors' views, medicinal materials were divided into the genuine and the substitutes. The genuine was identified as ancient so-called "iron" type "Zha-xun", and the substitute was fecal pellet bonding briquette. According to the field survey and literature research, "source of fossil" more in line with substance of Zha-xun was derived from the rock. As the results, the author believed that Zha-xun was the mixture of organic fossils from the rock seepage with flying squirrel, pika feces. So it is needed to be set up Zha-xun classification standard to evaluate the quality of medicinal materials. Meanwhile, it was necessary to further clarify fecal pellet substitute rationality. Above all, this article clarified the status of the use of Tibetan medicine-"Zha-xun", and laid the foundation of species systematics and quality standards research of "Zha-xun".

OBJECTIVE: To study the material composition of Tibetan medicine "Brag-zhun", and to provide the basis for interpretation of its source and reference for the establishment of quality standards.METHODS: Pharmacognosy routine method was used in macroscopic and microscopic identifications, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry was carried out to determine 26 kinds of mineral elements,and X-ray diffraction analysis was used for the crystalline phase detection of Brag-zhun. The content of calcium,organic matter, humic acid and fulvic acid was determined according to GB/T 14610-2008, "technical specification for soil analysis" , GB/T 11957-2001 and capacity titration, respectively. Moisture, ash content, acid insoluble ash content and water soluble extract were determined with reference to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). RESULTS: Animal feces were commonly found in Brag-zhun, the main crystal phase was SiO2, 26 kinds of mineral elements content in total was about 3%, 13 batches of medicinal materials in organic matter content was 29.03%-71.79%. Humic acid content was 28.37%-58.51%; fulvic acid content was 19.69%-41.43%; moisture was 5.2% -11.7%; total ash content was 17.82%-64.39%; acid insoluble ash content was 2.10%-39.09%; and water soluble extract was 28.39%-57.40%. CONCLUSION: The traditional record of Brag-zhun from molten juice is lack of scientific basis. The mineral elements in Brag-zhun exist in amorphous. Brag-zhun contains a lot of organic matter including humic acid and fulvic acid, and inorganic matter mainly comes from sediment. The organic matter in rock has gone through a long geological evolution.

Zha-xun is widely used in Tibetan medicine and is also an international traditional medicine. This article would summarize the use status and research progress of Zha-xun by various ethnic groups all over the world, and the results show that it has various synonyms but most of them imply its most characteristic feature-outflow from the rock; Zha-xun resources are distributed in various places of the world, and its bearing spots are closely related to the geological structure; there are sharp arguments on the origins of Zha-xun, mainly including the minerals origin, biological fossils origin, biological origin, etc. Zha-xun has multiple functions and is mainly used to treat stomach disease, liver disease and rheumatoid arthritis in China, and premature ejaculation, impotence, vaginitis embolism in foreign countries. "Iron" Zha-xun is used into medicines both at home and abroad. According to ancient materia medica texts, it was mainly classified into five types, including gold Zha-xun, silver Zha-xun, copper Zha-xun, iron Zha-xun and lead Zha-xun mainly based on the predominance of color rather than the minerals contained. It is commonly believed by the domestic and foreign scholars that humic acid is the main medicinal part of Zha-xun, and their studies have found that it has a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, liver protection, analgesia, immune regulation, increasing sexual desire and fertility, antioxidation, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiepileptic, antipsychotic, etc. This paper provides a scientific basis for the rational utilization of Zha-xun resources.

Objective: To clarity the original plants and the main application varieties of White Flos Gentianae.; Method: Herbal textual research, wild specimen collection, investigation and collection of the samples from Tibetan hospital, Tibetan pharmaceutical factory and medical material market were carried out simultaneously to identify the original plants of White Flos Gentianae.; Result: The results of varieties textual research and specimen identification showed that Gentiana szechenyii, G. purdomii and G. algida were in accord with the record of Tibetan herbal textual The three species above were the original plants of White Flos Gentianae. The identification of 20 batches samples showed that G. szechenyii was the main application variety. The other varieties were only used in Tibetan hospitals. All the samples above were flowering branches.; Conclusion: It was necessary to strengthen the research on variety systematization of White Flos Gentianae make a further discussion on the taxonomy position of G. purdomii, G. algida and the white flos population. Its was also nessary to establish and improve the quality standard of different variety based on the principle of "one species, one name". The quality specification of White Flos Gentianae should be established and improved to standard clinical utilization and produce feeding. More study of resources investigation and cultivation of G. szechenyii should be carried on to meet the demand of produce and clinic.;