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Naturally occurring oligostilbenes are receiving more attention because they exhibit several beneficial effects for health, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-adipogenic, antioxidant, antiaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiviral, immunosuppressive and neuroprotective activities. Thus, they could be of some potentially therapeutic values for several diseases. In this study, we adopted the alkaline extraction-acid precipitation (AEAP) method for extraction of oligostilbenes from the seed kernel of Iris lactea Then, the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for preparative isolation and purification of oligostilbenes from the AEAP extracts. Finally, three oligostilbenes, namely vitisin D (73 mg), ampelopsin B (25 mg) and cis-vitisin A (16 mg), were successfully fractionated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:5:3:6, v/v/v/v) from 300 mg of the AEAP extracts in ∼ 190 min. The purities of the three isolated oligostilbenes were all over 95.0% as analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. They all were isolated from I. lacteal for the first time.The method of AEAP for the preparation of the oligostilbene-enriched crude sample was simple, and the HSCCC technique for the isolation and purification of oligostilbenes was efficient.
Fenugreek is a well known annual herb widely used in both medicine and food. Four flavonoid glycosides have been separated from fenugreek seeds in our previous study. In this study, the effects of the four flavonoid glycosides on regulating glycolipid metabolism and improving mitochondrial function were investigated. Isoorientin showed a very significant activity among these flavonoid glycosides. First, isoorientin decreased the accumulation of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by reducing the expression of adipokines including PPARγ, C/EBPα, and FAS. Second, isoorientin restored insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in dexamethasone-induced insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes by reactivating Akt and AMPK. Finally, isoorientin improved mitochondrial dysfunction induced by dexamethasone in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Isoorientin also reversed dexamethasone-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular ATP production, reduced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and protected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from oxidative damage. At the same time, mitochondrial biogenesis is promoted. Therefore, isoorientin may be an attractive candidate as a glucose-lowering and insulin-resistance-improving agent for the treatment of diabetes.
Two novel organic amide alkaloids, 4-[(<i>E</i>)-<i>p</i>-coumaroylamino]butan-1-ol (<b>1</b>) and 4-[(<i>Z</i>)-<i>p</i>-coumaroylamino]butan-1-ol (<b>2</b>), together with a rare pyridoindole alkaloid, hippophamide (<b>3</b>), were isolated from the seed residue of <i>Hippophae rhamnoides</i> Linn. subsp. <i>sinensis</i> Rousi. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. The results show that compounds <b>1</b> and <b>2</b> are (<i>E</i>/<i>Z</i>)<i>-</i>isomers, compound <b>3</b>, a pyridoindole alkaloid concerted with <i>γ</i>-lactam ring.
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of seed oil of Caragana korshinskii Kom. against Trichophyton mentagrophytes on an in vivo guinea pig model of dermatophytosis.METHODS: The skin of albino guinea pigs was infected with T. mentagrophytes, and the animals were divided into five groups: negative control (NC group), positive control (PC group), vehicle control, CK50% group (received topical 50% seed oil of C.korshinskii), and CK100% group (received topical 100% seed oil of C.korshinskii). Evaluation of clinical efficacy was performed 72 h after the completion of a 10-day treatment regimen. Skin biopsy samples were processed for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The infected untreated control guinea pigs showed patches of hair loss and ulcerated or scaly skin. Lower clinical scores indicate improved efficacy compared with NC. The lesion scores significantly declined in the CK50%, CK100%, and PC groups in comparison with the NC group. The CK50% group (45.31%) and the CK100% group (75%) showed clinical efficacy compared with the PC group (78.13%). In addition, no fungal elements, inflammation, or tissue destruction was observed in any of the PAS-stained sections of the infected skin in the groups treated with CK100% or 1% terbinafine. CONCLUSION: Seed oil of C.korshinskii demonstrated high antifungal efficacy in experimental dermatophytosis.