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The chemical constituents of the traditional Tibetan medicine of Saussurea medusa Maxim. (Compositae) were investigated and a new flavonoid glucoside, together with 14 known compounds, was isolated. The structure of the new compound was established as 6''-O-crotonoylhomoplantaginin by using one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analyses.

An improved HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) method has been developed to simultaneously quantify eight major compounds in Saussurea tridactyla Sch.-Bip. ex Hook. f. which has long been used as a traditional Tibetan medicine. This method was validated to be sensitive, precise and accurate with the LODs of 0.11-5.01 microg/ml, the overall intra-day and inter-day variations less than 2.70%, and the overall recovery over 98.0%, respectively. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) of the calibration curves were higher than 0.991. This newly established method was successfully applied to reveal the difference in the chemical profiles and contents of these analyses in S. tridactyla from different localities. In addition, by comparison UV and MS spectra with those of authentic compounds and literatures, a total of fourteen peaks were identified. It can be concluded that this method was effective to ensure the safety and efficacy consistency of S. tridactyla, and can be applied to other traditional Tibetan medicinal plants from different resources in Tibet.

A new isoquinoline alkaloid (6), along with nine known ones (1-5, 7-10), was isolated from the plateau plant Corydalis hendersonii, which is used as a traditional Tibetan medicine. The structure of the new compound was elucidated as 9-methyldecumbenine C by spectroscopic evidence.

From the aerial parts of <i>Senecio dianthus</i>, four new eremophilenolides (<b>1</b>-<b>4</b>, resp.) and one new eremophilenolide alkaloid (<b>5</b>), of the relatively uncommon eremophilenoid-type sesquiterpenoid lactones, were isolated together with three known sesquiterpenoid lactones, 10<i>β</i>-hydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>6</b>), 8<i>β</i>,10<i>β</i>-dihydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>7</b>), and 10<i>α</i>-hydroxy-1-oxoeremophila-7(11),8(9)-dien-12,8-olide (<b>8</b>). On the basis of IR, MS, and NMR data, particularly 2D-NMR analyses, the structures of the new compounds were established as: 2<i>β</i>-(angeloyloxy)-10<i>β</i>-hydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>1</b>), 6<i>β</i>-(angeloyloxy)-10<i>β</i>-hydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>2</b>), 2<i>β</i>-(angeloyloxy)-8<i>β</i>,10<i>β</i>-dihydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>3</b>), 2<i>β</i>-(angeloyloxy)-8<i>α</i>-hydroxyeremophila-7(11),9(10)-dien-12,8<i>β</i>-olide (<b>4</b>), and 8<i>β</i>-amino-10<i>β</i>-hydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8<i>α</i>-olide (<b>5</b>). In addition, the relative configuration of <b>1</b> was corroborated by X-ray diffraction analysis.

Chrysosplenium nudicaule,Tibetan name " Yajima",is recorded as an effective medicine for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases by Tibetan Pharmacopoeia published in the past dynasties,but its traditional efficacy has not yet been investigated by means of modern pharmacological research methods. In this paper,the protective effect of extract of C. nudicaule(ECN) on liver injury in mice was observed by using the mice model of intrahepatic cholestasis(IC) induced by α-naphthyl isothiocyanate(ANIT) and the possible mechanism by which ECN work as the therapeutic agent was discussed. The results showed that the serum levels of AST,ALT,ALP,DBIL,TBIL and TBA of the model mice were notably reduced in dose-dependent manner(P<0. 01,P<0. 05). The activity of SOD and GSH-Px in the liver homogenate of mice was increased,while the content of MDA was decreased(P<0. 01,P<0. 05).Pathological examination of liver in mice showed that ECN could improve the pathological changes of liver tissue in mice. The mRNA expression level of genes related to bile acid metabolism were detected by RT-PCR and the results suggested that ECN could significantly increase the expression of genes such as BSEP,FXR and MRP2(P<0. 01,P<0. 05),meanwhile significantly reduce the expression of CYP7 A1(P<0. 01,P<0. 05). These results confirmed the protective effect of ECN on intrahepatic cholestasis-induced liver injury in mice,and indicated that the mechanism may be related to activating FXR and its target genes,reducing bile acid synthesis and increasing bile acid excretion. This study provides a modern pharmacological basis for the clinical application of Yajima in Tibetan medicine.

Qumazi is a commonly used Tibetan medicine. With a long history, it can be found in the Four Medical Tantras written by gYu-thog rNying-ma Yon-tan mGon-po since the 8th century AD. Qumazi grows in mudflats and fields, including species growing in highlands, lowlands, mountains and farmlands. According to records in Crystal Beads Materia Medica, it features green sword-shaped leaves, thin stems with red veins, inserted panicles, white chicken-like flowers and copper needle row-like roots. However, there are many inconsistent morphological descriptions for Qumazi plants in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books. In this article, after studying ancient and modern Tibetan medicine books, consulting experts and conducting surveys, the authors confirmed that Qumazi belongs to Rheum of Polygonaceae, including Rheum nobile Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. globulosum Gage, R. alexandrae Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. pumilum Maxim and R. delavayi Franch. In some regions, Qumazi is substituted by R. spiciforme Royle and R. przewalskyi Losinsk. After the Chinese version of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Drug Illustrations was published in 1972, Qumazi has been miswritten as P. sibiricum Laxm in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books, perhaps because P. sibiricum Laxm has many similar features with Qumazi as described in Crystal Beads Materia Medica and then is mistranslated from Tibetan to Chinese versions. According to records, Qumazi can reduce edema and is mainly applied to treat the minamata disease in clinic.