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This study presents an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum. A new solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/water (4:2:1, v/v/v) was developed for the liquid-liquid extraction of the crude extract from R. tanguticum. As a result, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol were greatly enriched in the organic layer. In addition, an efficient method was successfully established to separate and purify the above anthraquinones by high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative HPLC. This study supplies a new alternative method for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of emodin, aloe-emodin, physcione, and chrysophanol.
In this paper, an efficient method was successfully established by the combination of macroporous resin (MR) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) for rapid enrichment and separation of aloe-emodin 8-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin 1-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin 8-O-β-D-glucoside and piceatannol 4'-O-β-D-(6″-O-gallate)-glucoside. Six kinds of macroporous resins were investigated in the first step and X-5 macroporous resin was selected for the enrichment of the target compounds. The recoveries of the target compounds reached 89.0, 85.9, 82.3 and 84.9% respectively after 40% ethanol elution. In the second step, the target compounds were separated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (8:1:6:5, v/v). The established method will be helpful for further characterization and utilization of Rheum tanguticum. The results demonstrate that MR coupled with HSCCC is a powerful technique for separation of bioactive compounds from natural products.
Barley seedlings are rich in flavones that can have positive effects on people with antihypoxia and antifatigue. Lutonarin and saponarin are two major flavonoid glycosides that have unique structures in barley seedlings. This study presents a new approach for the preparation of lutonarin and saponarin from barely seedlings by membrane separation technology and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Preparative conditions of these two flavonoid glycosides by membrane separation technology were studied using response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the total contents of these two flavonoid glycosides amounts to 17.0%.
Anthraquinone glycosides, such as chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside, chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside, and physion 8-O-β-d-glucoside, are the accepted important active components of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. due to their pharmacological properties: antifungal, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. However, an effective method for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from this herb is not currently available. Especially, greater difficulty existed in the separation of the two isomers chrysophanol 1-O-β-d-glucoside and chrysophanol 8-O-β-d-glucoside. This study demonstrated an efficient strategy based on preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and high-speed countercurrent chromatography for the separation of the above-mentioned anthraquinone glycosides from Rheum tanguticum Maxim.ex Balf.
This study presents an efficient strategy for separation of three phenolic compounds with high molecular weight from the crude extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. by ultrasound-assisted extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography. The ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology and the results showed the target compounds could be well enriched under the optimized extraction conditions. Then the crude extract was directly separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography without any pretreatment using n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:7:0.5:3, v/v/v/v) as the solvent system. In 180 min, 13 mg of A, 18 mg of B, and 9 mg of C were obtained from 200 mg of crude sample. Their structures were identified as Chebulagic acid (A, 954 Da), Chebulinic acid (B, 956 Da), and Ellagic acid (C) by (1) H NMR spectroscopy.