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EEG Neurofeedback Is Under Strong Control of Psychosocial Factors
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Format: Journal Article
Publication Year: 2018
Pages: 293 - 300
Source ID: shanti-sources-109191
Abstract: Recently, a deep impact of psychosocial effects on the outcomes of neurofeedback training was suggested. Previous findings point out an association between locus of control in dealing with technology and the individual ability to up-regulate the sensorimotor rhythm (12–15 Hz) in the EEG. Since the antecedents of locus of control in dealing with technology differ between males and females, we have investigated the effect of sex of participant and experimenter on the outcomes of neurofeedback training. Mindfulness and SMR baseline power also were assessed as possible confounding variables. Undergraduate psychology students (n = 142) took part in a single session of neurofeedback training conducted by either male or female experimenters. Male participants as well as those female participants instructed by male experimenters were able to upregulate SMR, while female participants trained by female experimenters were not. A strong positive correlation between training outcomes and locus of control in dealing with technology was observed only in the female participants trained by female experimenters. These results are suggestive about the impact of psychosocial factors—particularly gender-related effects—on neurofeedback training outcomes and the urgent need to document it in neurofeedback studies.