Effect of repetitive yogic squats with specific hand position (Thoppukaranam) on selective attention and psychological states
International Journal of Yoga
Format: Journal Article
Publication Year: 2014
Pages: 76 - 79
Source ID: shanti-sources-109086
Collection: Mindfulness Studies and Undergraduates
Abstract: Context:Research on the effect of Thoppukaranam is limited despite it being practiced as a form of worship to the elephant-headed deity Lord Ganapati and punishment in schools. Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Thoppukaranam on selective attention and psychological states in a sample of young adults. Settings and Designs: A randomized self-as-control within subjects design was employed. Thirty undergraduate students (4 females and 26 males) from a residential Yoga University in Southern India were recruited for this study (group mean age ± standard deviation, 20.17 ± 2.92). Materials and Methods: The d2 test, State Anxiety Inventory-Short Form and State Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (SMAAS) were used to measure cognitive performance and psychological states. Assessments were made in three sessions: Baseline, control (squats), and experimental (Thoppukaranam) on 3 separate days. Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed using one-way repeated measures analyses of variance between three sessions, that is, baseline, squat, and Thoppukaranam. Results: There was a significant improvement in all measures of the d2 test of attention (TN, E, TN-E, E%, and concentration performance) and state mindfulness after Thoppukaranam. Further state anxiety reduced significantly after the experimental session. Conclusions: These findings indicate Thoppukaranam results in enhancement of cognitive functioning and psychological states.